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Michael G. Fehlings and James W. Austin

spasticity in cases otherwise thought to be stable. Although PTS will develop in a large population of patients with SCI (up to 30%), not all cases are immediately symptomatic, most likely as a result of smaller syringes. 8 , 12 , 13 , 17 , 20 However, syrinx enlargement over time is common. 4 , 16 Evidence suggests that PTS is increasingly recognized with the greater use of MR imaging in recent years. 19 Clinical observations and animal models suggest that the development of PTS is associated with the formation of an initial lesion due to secondary pathological SCI

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Jian Tu, Jinxin Liao, Marcus A. Stoodley and Anne M. Cunningham

has been revealed in the adult human brain, 12 intact spinal cord, 19 and animal models of spinal cord injury. 18 , 31 , 32 , 42 Whether the same is true in PTS is unknown, however. In the present investigation, we used a rat model that shares many characteristics with PTS in humans, especially in the gray matter. 5 , 49 In our animal model of PTS, we intended to quantitatively examine 1) whether the proliferation of progenitor cells occurs; 2) how long an active population of progenitor cells persists; 3) if the cell population's location is associated with the

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Sarah J. Hemley, Lynne E. Bilston, Shaokoon Cheng and Marcus A. Stoodley

is compromised and whether there are changes in AQP4 expression in an animal model of noncommunicating canalicular syringomyelia. Specifically, we aimed to evaluate both structural and functional integrity of the BSCB, and determine any association between AQP4 expression and syrinx formation. Methods Following approval from the animal care and ethics committees of the University of New South Wales and Macquarie University, 27 male Sprague-Dawley rats (mean [SD] weight 377 ± 132 g, age range 6–10 weeks) were divided into 4 experimental groups, including 3

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Lynne E. Bilston, Marcus A. Stoodley and David F. Fletcher

Stoodley et al. 24 Some clues from animal models of posttraumatic syringomyelia and arachnoiditis suggest that there is enhancement of this flow into the spinal cord adjacent to the region of arachnoiditis. 7 Perivascular spaces in the spinal cord are enlarged adjacent to arachnoiditis and the spinal cord pressure exceeds that of the SAS. 15 A recent modeling study 3 suggests that the arachnoiditis increases pressures in the SAS, which may contribute to this enhanced flow. However, for a syrinx to enlarge and compress the surrounding spinal cord tissue, the laws of

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Sarah J. Hemley, B. Biotech, Jian Tu and Marcus A. Stoodley

between loss of EBA and edema formation, with subsequent reestablishment of EBA expression correlating with clearance of edema. 10 , 14 , 28 Such results suggest that damage to the BSCB may indeed play a role in either the development of cord edema and small initial cysts or the enlargement of small cysts over time to form syrinxes. Failure of the BSCB to repair after SCI may be pivotal in the subsequent development of posttraumatic syringomyelia. The aims of this study were to determine whether structural components of the BSCB are compromised in an animal model of

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Elizabeth C. Clarke, Marcus A. Stoodley and Lynne E. Bilston

. Brain Res 326 : 47 – 63 , 1985 11 Stoodley MA , Brown SA , Brown CJ , Jones NR : Arterial pulsation-dependent perivascular cerebrospinal fluid flow into the central canal in the sheep spinal cord . J Neurosurg 86 : 686 – 693 , 1997 12 Stoodley MA , Gutschmidt B , Jones NR : Cerebrospinal fluid flow in an animal model of noncommunicating syringomyelia . Neurosurgery 44 : 1065 – 1076 , 1999 13 Stoodley MA , Jones NR , Brown CJ : Evidence for rapid fluid flow from the subarachnoid space into the spinal cord central canal in

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Rajesh Reddy, T. T. Hong Duong, Jacob M. Fairhall, Robert I. Smee and Marcus A. Stoodley

of Animals for Scientific Purposes . Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as the animal model of AVM. This model has been shown to share hemodynamic, angiographic, morphological, and molecular characteristics with human AVMs. 23 , 31 , 33 , 49 , 55 , 56 The AVM model creation has been described in detail. 23 , 47 , 54 , 60 Briefly, rats were anesthetized, and an anterior cervical approach was used to expose the left common carotid artery and external jugular vein. Blood flow through the common carotid artery was measured by using a 1-mm Doppler

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Athula Karunanyaka, Jian Tu, Amy Watling, Kingsley P. Storer, Apsara Windsor and Marcus A. Stoodley

endothelial molecular changes are similar, the animal model would be suitable for investigations of the effects of radiosurgery on AVM endothelial cells. Methods Animal Model Studies involving animals were approved by the University of New South Wales Animal Care and Ethics Committee in Sydney, Australia. Fistulas were created by anastomosing the caudal end of the external jugular vein to the side of the CCA in 18 male Sprague–Dawley rats (weighing 250–450 g) as shown in Fig. 1 , and reported previously. 38 In 6 control animals, the same vessels were exposed and

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Johnny H. Y. Wong, Xin Song, Sarah J. Hemley, Lynne E. Bilston, Shaokoon Cheng and Marcus A. Stoodley

to be developed until the mechanisms for the formation and expansion of posttraumatic syringomyelia are more clearly understood. 5 Many theories regarding the pathogenesis of posttraumatic syringomyelia have been proposed, but a theory that is consistent with all available evidence remains elusive. 40 Most theories have been based on clinical and radiological observations without experimental validation. Experimental validation can generally be performed only by using computational, mechanical, or animal models. Computational modeling is often based on data

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Zhenjun Zhao, Michael S. Johnson, Biyi Chen, Michael Grace, Jaysree Ukath, Vivienne S. Lee, Lucinda S. McRobb, Lisa M. Sedger and Marcus A. Stoodley

can cause DNA damage and may lead to cell apoptosis. 35 Cell damage can induce phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization on the membrane. 7 , 26 Indeed, PS has been widely used as a marker of cell injury. 26 Results of our previous work indicated that PS was externalized selectively in the AVM nidus after radiosurgery in an AVM animal model and that PS is a potential molecular target for vascular targeting. 38 More comprehensive study of PS externalization after radiosurgery is required to reveal the molecular response of endothelial cells induced by radiation and