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Sherman C. Stein and Wensheng Guo

: Volumetric measurements in the detection of reduced ventricular volume in patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus whose clinical condition improved after ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement . J Neurosurg 97 : 73 – 79 , 2002 7 Aoki N , Sakai T : Avulsion of choroid plexus during revision of ventricular shunting: its high incidence and predictive value on computed tomography scan . Surg Neurol 33 : 256 – 260 , 1990 8 Arnell K , Eriksson E , Olsen L : The programmable adult Codman Hakim valve is useful even in very small children with

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Zarina S. Ali, Dara Bakar, Yun R. Li, Alex Judd, Hiren Patel, Eric L. Zager, Gregory G. Heuer and Sherman C. Stein

root, there is additional loss of extension of the wrist. The severity of the injury varies from a neurapraxic injury, which typically resolves spontaneously, to a complete avulsion injury, which has no potential for spontaneous recovery. Early management strategies of NBPP included physical therapy and supportive care, given the significant morbidity associated with attempts at surgical reconstruction. Then, beginning in the 1980s, surgical repair of these injuries was reestablished when reports of good outcomes were published, likely, in part, due to increasing

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Willem Pondaag and Martijn J. A. Malessy

these papers. Such data, including ranges (that is, upper and lower bounds), should accompany base-case estimates of all input parameters for transparency of a utility model. 11 Three of these papers report the outcome of nerve transfers (the authors' references to Blaauw and Sloof, Kawabata et al., and Wellons et al.), and 1 paper concerns the outcome of end-to-side transfers (the reference to Pondaag and Gilbert). These surgical methods are usually used in cases of multiple root avulsions. Such serious lesion types do not represent the general population of NBPP

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Zarina S. Ali, Gregory G. Heuer, Ryan W. F. Faught, Shriya H. Kaneriya, Umar A. Sheikh, Idrees S. Syed, Sherman C. Stein and Eric L. Zager

U pper trunk brachial plexus injuries involving the C5–6 roots result in significant disability due to a loss of shoulder abduction, external rotation, elbow flexion, and forearm supination. Involvement of the C-7 spinal root may lead to deficits involving additional movements, including finger, wrist, and elbow extension. The severity of these injuries varies from a neurapraxic injury, which typically resolves spontaneously, to a complete avulsion injury, which has no potential for spontaneous recovery. In adults, the restoration of elbow flexion is the