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  • Author or Editor: David K. Hahn x
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Ricardo J. Komotar, David K. Hahn, Grace H. Kim, Robert M. Starke, Matthew C. Garrett, Maxwell B. Merkow, Marc L. Otten, Robert R. Sciacca and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Chronic hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement is a common complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Controversy exists over whether microsurgical fenestration of the lamina terminalis during aneurysm surgery affords a reduction in the development of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. To resolve this debate, the authors performed a systematic review and quantitative analysis of the literature to determine the efficacy of lamina terminalis fenestration in reducing aneurysmal SAH–associated shunt-dependent hydrocephalus.

Methods

A MEDLINE (1950–2007) database search was performed using the following keywords, singly and in combination: “ventriculoperitoneal shunt,” “hydrocephalus,” “subarachnoid hemorrhage,” “aneurysm,” “fenestration,” and “lamina terminalis.” Additional studies were manually singled out by scrutinizing references from identified manuscripts, major neurosurgical journals and texts, and personal files. A recent study from the authors' institution was also incorporated into the review. Data from included studies were analyzed using the chi-square analysis and Student t-test. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to compare overall incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus.

Results

The literature search revealed 19 studies, but only 11 were included in this review, involving 1973 patients. The fenestrated and nonfenestrated cohorts (combined from the various studies) differed significantly with regard to patient sex, age, and clinical grade as well as aneurysm location (p = 0.0065, 0.0028, 0.0003, and 0.017, respectively). The overall incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the fenestrated cohort was 10%, as compared with 14% in the nonfenestrated cohort (p = 0.089). The relative risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the fenestrated cohort was 0.88 (95% CI 0.62–1.24).

Conclusions

This systematic review revealed no significant association between lamina terminalis fenestration and a reduced incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The interpretation of these results, however, is restricted by unmatched cohort differences as well as other inherent study limitations. Although the overall literature supports lamina terminalis fenestration, a number of authors have questioned the technique's benefits, thus rendering its efficacy in reducing shunt-dependent hydrocephalus unclear. A well-designed, multicenter, randomized controlled trial is needed to definitively address the efficacy of this microsurgical technique.

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Grace H. Kim, Christopher P. Kellner, David K. Hahn, Brianna M. Desantis, Muhith Musabbir, Robert M. Starke, Michal Rynkowski, Ricardo J. Komotar, Marc L. Otten, Robert Sciacca, J. Michael Schmidt, Stephan A. Mayer and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Despite efforts to elucidate both the molecular mechanism and the clinical predictors of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH), its pathogenesis remains unclear. Monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that has been firmly implicated in the pathophysiology of vasospasm and in neural tissue injury following focal ischemia in both animal models and human studies. The authors hypothesized that MCP-1 would be found in increased concentrations in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with ASAH and would correlate with both outcome and the occurrence of vasospasm.

Methods

Seventy-seven patients who presented with ASAH were prospectively enrolled in this study between July 2001 and May 2002. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, MCP-1 levels were measured in serum daily and in CSF when available. The mean serum and CSF MCP-1 concentrations were calculated for each patient throughout the entire hospital stay. Neurological outcome was evaluated at discharge or 14 days posthemorrhage using the modified Rankin Scale. Vasospasm was evaluated on angiography.

Results

The serum MCP-1 concentrations correlated with negative outcome such that a 10% increase in concentration predicted a 25% increase in the probability of a poor outcome, whereas the serum MCP-1 levels did not correlate with vasospasm. Concentrations of MCP-1 in the CSF, however, proved to be significantly higher in patients with angiographically demonstrated vasospasm.

Conclusions

These findings suggest a role for MCP-1 in neurological injury and imply that it may act as a biomarker of poor outcome in the serum and of vasospasm in the CSF.