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  • Author or Editor: Wesley Hsu x
  • By Author: Somasundaram, Aravind x
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Aravind Somasundaram, Glenn J. Lesser, Ryan T. Mott and Wesley Hsu

Malignant transformation of epidermoid cysts (ECs) to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the CNS is exceedingly rare and has only been described in intracranial ECs. In this article, the authors describe a 53-year-old man with a history of a previously resected T3–4 EC, who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening weakness in the left side of his body. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing mass in the T3–4 region, the exact location of the previous cyst. The mass was resected in gross-total fashion, and pathological analysis revealed an SCC. Postoperatively, the patient regained full strength in his lower extremities. After the resection, he received radiotherapy administered at an isodose of 50 Gy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of malignant transformation of an intramedullary spinal EC in the literature.

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Aravind Somasundaram, Robert T. Wicks, Adrian L. Lata, Shadi A. Qasem and Wesley Hsu

In this article, the authors describe a 48-year-old man who initially presented with progressively worsening back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft-tissue mass involving the T10–11 vertebral bodies with extension anteriorly into the aorta as well as epidural extension without spinal cord compression. A biopsy of the mass showed findings consistent with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). A total en bloc spondylectomy with resection and reconstruction of the involved aorta using a vascular graft was performed. The patient received postoperative radiation therapy and is neurologically intact at 18 months postoperatively. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a spinal MFH resection with aortic reconstruction.

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Analiz Rodriguez, Matthew T. Neal, Ann Liu, Aravind Somasundaram, Wesley Hsu and Charles L. Branch Jr


Symptomatic adjacent-segment lumbar disease (ASLD) after lumbar fusion often requires subsequent surgical intervention. The authors report utilizing cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screw fixation with intraoperative CT (O-arm) image-guided navigation to stabilize spinal levels in patients with symptomatic ASLD. This unique technique results in the placement of 2 screws in the same pedicle (1 traditional pedicle trajectory and 1 CBT) and obviates the need to remove preexisting instrumentation.


The records of 5 consecutive patients who underwent lumbar spinal fusion with CBT and posterior interbody grafting for ASLD were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent screw trajectory planning with the O-arm in conjunction with the StealthStation navigation system. Basic demographics, operative details, and radiographic and clinical outcomes were obtained.


The average patient age was 69.4 years (range 58–82 years). Four of the 5 surgeries were performed with the Minimal Access Spinal Technologies (MAST) Midline Lumbar Fusion (MIDLF) system. The average operative duration was 218 minutes (range 175–315 minutes). In the entire cohort, 5.5-mm cortical screws were placed in previously instrumented pedicles. The average hospital stay was 2.8 days (range 2–3 days) and there were no surgical complications. All patients had more than 6 months of radiographic and clinical follow-up (range 10–15 months). At last follow-up, all patients reported improved symptoms from their preoperative state. Radiographic follow-up showed Lenke fusion grades of A or B.


The authors present a novel fusion technique that uses CBT pedicle screw fixation in a previously instrumented pedicle with intraoperative O-arm guided navigation. This method obviates the need for hardware removal. This cohort of patients experienced good clinical results. Computed tomography navigation was critical for accurate CBT screw placement at levels where previous traditional pedicle screws were already placed for symptomatic ASLD.