Emily K. Miller, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Alan H. Daniels, Tamir Ailon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish, Virginie Lafage, Justin K. Scheer, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group
The goal of this study was to analyze the value of an adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) in preoperative risk stratification. Preoperative risk assessment is imperative before procedures known to have high complication rates, such as ASD surgery. Frailty has been associated with risk of complications in trauma surgery, and preoperative frailty assessments could improve the accuracy of risk stratification by providing a comprehensive analysis of patient factors that contribute to an increased risk of complications.
Using 40 variables, the authors calculated frailty scores with a validated method for 417 patients (enrolled between 2010 and 2014) with a minimum 2-year follow-up in an ASD database. On the basis of these scores, the authors categorized patients as not frail (NF) (< 0.3 points), frail (0.3–0.5 points), or severely frail (SF) (> 0.5 points). The correlation between frailty category and incidence of complications was analyzed.
The overall mean ASD-FI score was 0.33 (range 0.0–0.8). Compared with NF patients (n = 183), frail patients (n = 158) and SF patients (n = 109) had longer mean hospital stays (1.2 and 1.6 times longer, respectively; p < 0.001). The adjusted odds of experiencing a major intraoperative or postoperative complication were higher for frail patients (OR 2.8) and SF patients ( 4.1) compared with NF patients (p < 0.01). For frail and SF patients, respectively, the adjusted odds of developing proximal junctional kyphosis (OR 2.8 and 3.1) were higher than those for NF patients. The SF patients had higher odds of developing pseudarthrosis (OR 13.0), deep wound infection (OR 8.0), and wound dehiscence (OR 13.4) than NF patients (p < 0.05), and they had 2.1 times greater odds of reoperation (p < 0.05).
Greater patient frailty, as measured by the ASD-FI, was associated with worse outcome in many common quality and value metrics, including greater risk of major complications, proximal junctional kyphosis, pseudarthrosis, deep wound infection, wound dehiscence, reoperation, and longer hospital stay.
Micheal Raad, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Peter G. Passias, Eric Klineberg, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Emily K. Miller, Justin S. Smith, Virginie Lafage, D. Kojo Hamilton, Shay Bess, Khaled M. Kebaish, Daniel M. Sciubba and the International Spine Study Group
Given the recent shift in health care toward quality reporting requirements and a greater emphasis on a cost-quality approach, patient stratification with respect to long-term outcomes and the use of health care resources is of increasing value. Stratification tools may be effective if they are simple and evidence based. The authors hypothesize that preoperative patient-reported activity levels might independently predict postoperative outcomes in patients with adult spinal deformity.
This is a retrospective cohort. A total of 575 patients in a prospective adult spinal deformity surgical database were identified with complete data regarding the preoperative level of activity. Answers to question 5 of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22r) were used to stratify patients into active and inactive groups. Outcomes were length of hospital stay (LOS), level of activity, and reaching the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for SRS-22r domains and the Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-36 at 2 years postoperatively. The 2 groups were compared with respect to several potential confounders. Covariates with p < 0.1 were controlled for. The impact of activity on LOS was assessed using multivariate negative binomial regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models additionally controlling for the respective baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores were used to assess the association between preoperative activity levels and reaching the MCID at 2 years postoperatively.
A total of 420 (73%) of the 575 patients who met the inclusion criteria had complete data at 2 years postoperatively. The inactive group was more likely to be significantly older, have a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, worse baseline radiographic deformity, and greater correction of most radiographic parameters. After controlling for possible confounders, the active group had a significantly shorter LOS (incidence risk ratio 0.91, p = 0.043). After adding respective baseline HRQOL scores to the models, active patients were significantly more likely to reach the MCID for the SRS-22r pain domain (OR 1.72, p = 0.026) and PCS (OR 1.94, p = 0.013). Active patients were also significantly more likely to be active at 2 years postoperatively on multivariate analysis (OR 8.94, p < 0.001).
The authors’ results show that patients who belong to the inactive group are likely to have a longer LOS and lower odds of reaching the MCID in HRQOL or being active at 2 years postoperatively. Inquiring about patients’ preoperative activity levels might be a reliable and simple stratification tool in terms of long- and short-term outcomes in ASD patients.
Phoenix, Arizona • March 6–9, 2013
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010