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Keisuke Takai, Taichi Kin, Hiroshi Oyama, Masaaki Shojima and Nobuhito Saito

Object

There have been significant advances in understanding the angioarchitecture of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the major intradural retrograde venous drainage system has not been investigated in detail, including the most proximal sites of intradural radiculomedullary veins as they connect to the dura mater, which are the final targets of interruption in both microsurgical and endovascular treatments.

Methods

Between April 1984 and March 2011, 27 patients with 28 AVFs were treated for spinal dural AVFs at the authors' university hospital. The authors assessed vertebral levels of feeding arteries and dural AVFs by using conventional digital subtraction angiography. They also assessed 3D locations of the most proximal sites of intradural radiculomedullary veins and the 3D positional relationship between the major intradural retrograde venous drainage system and intradural neural structures, including the spinal cord, spinal nerves, and the artery of Adamkiewicz, by using operative video recordings plus 3D rotational angiography and/or 3D computer graphics. In addition, they statistically assessed the clinical results of 27 cases. Of these lesions, 23 were treated with open microsurgery and the rest were treated with endovascular methods.

Results

Feeding arteries consisted of T2–10 intercostal arteries with 19 lesions, T-12 subcostal arteries with 3 lesions, and L1–3 lumbar arteries with 6 lesions. The 3D locations of the targets of interruption (the most proximal sites of intradural radiculomedullary veins as they connect to the dura mater) were identified at the dorsolateral portion of the dura mater adjacent to dorsal roots in all 19 thoracic lesions, whereas they were identified at the ventrolateral portion of the dura mater adjacent to ventral roots in 7 (78%) of 9 cases of conus medullaris/lumbar lesions (p < 0.001). The major intradural retrograde venous drainage system was located dorsal to the spinal cord in all 19 thoracic lesions, whereas it was located ventral to the spinal cord in 4 (44%) of 9 cases of conus/lumbar lesions (p = 0.006). In 3 (11%) of 27 cases, AVFs had a common origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz. In 2 lumbar lesions, the artery of Adamkiewicz ascended very close to the vein because of its ventral location. Although all lesions were successfully obliterated without major complications and both gait and micturition status significantly improved (p = 0.005 and p = 0.015, respectively), conus/lumbar lesions needed careful differential diagnosis from ventral intradural perimedullary AVFs, because the ventral location of these lesions contradicted the Spetzler classification system.

Conclusions

The angioarchitecture of spinal dural AVFs in the thoracic region is strikingly different from that in conus/lumbar regions with regard to the intradural retrograde venous drainage system. One should keep in mind that spinal dural AVFs are not always dorsal types, especially in conus/lumbar regions.

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Keisuke Takai, Taichi Kin, Hiroshi Oyama, Akira Iijima, Masaaki Shojima, Hajime Nishido and Nobuhito Saito

Object

Digital subtraction (DS) angiography is the gold standard for diagnosing spinal vascular malformations. Recently, multidetectorrow spiral CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiography have been introduced as screening examinations before DS angiography. These methods, however, do not always determine the accurate location of an arteriovenous shunt because the resulting images lack information about the spinal cord or the dura mater.

Methods

Between April 2009 and December 2010, 13 patients underwent imaging evaluations for spinal vascular malformations at the authors' university hospital. This group included 8 patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), 3 with perimedullary AVFs, and 2 with intramedullary arteriovenous malformations. Using data from these patients, the authors attempted to develop 3D computer graphics (CG) based upon the fusion of 3D rotational angiography and postmyelographic CT. They subsequently verified the accuracy of this imaging method. Ten of these 13 patients underwent surgical treatment for their lesions (11 AVFs), and for these 11 lesions the authors compared the diagnoses obtained using 3D CG with those obtained using conventional DS angiography.

Results

In all 13 cases, 3D CG images of the spinal lesions were successfully developed using the patients' actual data. Four (36%) of 11 AVFs were correctly identified using DS angiography, whereas 10 (91%) were correctly identified using 3D CG. Results from 3D CG of spinal AVFs corresponded well with operative findings, and 3D CG was significantly better than conventional DS angiography at predicting AVF location (p = 0.024, Fisher exact test).

Conclusions

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case series in which 3D CG of spinal vascular malformations was used to provide simultaneous, stereoscopic visualization of the spinal vascular system, spinal cord, dura mater, and bone. The 3D CG method provides precise visual images for the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions.

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Shunya Hanakita, Tomoyuki Koga, Masahiro Shin, Masaaki Shojima, Hiroshi Igaki and Nobuhito Saito

Object

The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the management of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs).

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of a group of 22 patients who underwent GKS for dAVFs at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1991 and 2009. The patients underwent CT or MR imaging with contrast enhancement every 6 months after GKS; when obliteration of a dAVF was indicated by these images, patients also underwent angiography. Follow-up in these patients ranged from 12 months to 100 months (median 33 months) after GKS.

Results

Obliteration of the dAVF was confirmed by neuroimaging in 12 patients (55%). According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, obliteration rates for the dAVFs were 51% at 3 years and 80% at 5 years. The obliteration rate for lesions without cortical venous drainage (CVD) was 86%, which was significantly higher than the rate for dAVFs with CVD (47%) (p = 0.007). Hemorrhage at presentation (p = 0.03), a target volume less than 1.5 cm3 (p = 0.009), and Cognard Type III or IV dAVF (p = 0.005) were factors associated with a higher obliteration rate. Among 10 patients whose dAVFs were not obliterated by the initial GKS, 5 patients underwent additional treatment and complete obliteration was achieved in all. Relief of tinnitus was obtained in 5 (83%) of 6 patients with transverse-sigmoid sinus dAVFs, and ophthalmic symptoms improved in 2 (67%) of 3 patients with cavernous sinus dAVFs. No patient experienced interval hemorrhage or radiation-induced complications after treatment.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is a safe and effective treatment for dAVF. It can be a first line of therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment strategy for dAVFs, especially when significant morbidity is anticipated with other therapeutic options. One should be very careful about recommending GKS for patients harboring dAVFs with CVD because of the expected natural history of such a lesion and the possibility of other therapeutic options.

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Masahiro Shin, Kenji Kondo, Shunya Hanakita, Keigo Suzukawa, Taichi Kin, Masaaki Shojima, Daichi Nakagawa and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECT

In recent years, application of endoscopic transnasal surgery (ETS) has been expanded to orbital lesions, and preliminary results have started to be published for medially located soft mass lesions. However, reports on experience with endoscopic intraorbital surgery aimed at resection of invasive skull base tumors remains quite limited. This report presents the authors’ experience with ETS for locally aggressive tumors involving the orbit.

METHODS

ETS was performed for 15 cases of aggressive tumors involving the orbit: 5 meningiomas (meningothelial, n = 3; atypical, n = 1; anaplastic, n = 1), 4 chordomas, 2 chondrosarcomas, and 4 others (metastasis from systemic myxofibrosarcoma, schwannoma, inverted papilloma, and acinic cell carcinoma, n = 1 each). Among these, 9 tumors were located outside the periorbita and 6 inside the periorbita. In 6 intraperiosteal tumors, 5 were intraconal lesions, of which 3 arose in the muscle cone (anaplastic meningioma, optic sheath meningioma, and metastatic myxofibrosarcoma), and 2 meningothelial meningioma had invaded from the sphenoid ridge or the cavernous sinus into the muscle cone through the optic canal and the superior orbital fissure. A case of schwannoma originated around the cavernous sinus and pterygopalatine fossa and extended extraconally into the periorbita. Intraoperatively, ethmoid air cells and the lamina papyracea were removed, and extraperiosteal tumors were safely approached. For intraperiosteal tumors, the periorbita was widely opened, and the tumors were approached through the surgical window between the rectus and oblique muscles.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was achieved for 12 of the 15 tumors, including 2 intraconal lesions. After surgery, exophthalmos resolved in all 8 patients with this symptom, and diplopia resolved in 5 of 6 patients. Improvement of visual symptoms was reported by 4 of 5 patients with loss of visual acuity or constriction of the visual field. Postoperatively, 1 patient showed mild, transient worsening of existing facial dysesthesia, and another showed transient ptosis and mild hypesthesia of the forehead on the affected side. All those symptoms resolved within 3 months. No patients showed enophthalmos, worsening of diplopia or visual function, or impairment of olfaction after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

ETS appears acceptable as a less-invasive alternative for treating aggressive tumors involving the orbit. For extraperiosteal tumors, gross-total removal can generally be achieved without neurological complications. For intraperiosteal tumors, surgical indications should be carefully discussed, considering the relationship between the tumor and normal anatomy. Wide opening of the periorbital window is advocated to create a sufficient surgical pathway between the extraocular muscles, allowing a balance between functional preservation and successful tumor resection.

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Taichi Kin, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Masaaki Shojima, Minoru Tanaka, Kenji Ino, Harushi Mori, Akira Kunimatsu, Hiroshi Oyama and Nobuhito Saito

Object

In this study, the authors used preoperative simulation employing 3D computer graphics (interactive computer graphics) to fuse all imaging data for brainstem cavernous malformations. The authors evaluated whether interactive computer graphics or 2D imaging correlated better with the actual operative field, particularly in identifying a developmental venous anomaly (DVA).

Methods

The study population consisted of 10 patients scheduled for surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations. Data from preoperative imaging (MRI, CT, and 3D rotational angiography) were automatically fused using a normalized mutual information method, and then reconstructed by a hybrid method combining surface rendering and volume rendering methods. With surface rendering, multimodality and multithreshold techniques for 1 tissue were applied. The completed interactive computer graphics were used for simulation of surgical approaches and assumed surgical fields. Preoperative diagnostic rates for a DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation were compared between conventional 2D imaging and interactive computer graphics employing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results

The time required for reconstruction of 3D images was 3–6 hours for interactive computer graphics. Observation in interactive mode required approximately 15 minutes. Detailed anatomical information for operative procedures, from the craniotomy to microsurgical operations, could be visualized and simulated three-dimensionally as 1 computer graphic using interactive computer graphics. Virtual surgical views were consistent with actual operative views. This technique was very useful for examining various surgical approaches. Mean (± SEM) area under the ROC curve for rate of DVA diagnosis was significantly better for interactive computer graphics (1.000 ± 0.000) than for 2D imaging (0.766 ± 0.091; p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test).

Conclusions

The authors report a new method for automatic registration of preoperative imaging data from CT, MRI, and 3D rotational angiography for reconstruction into 1 computer graphic. The diagnostic rate of DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation was significantly better using interactive computer graphics than with 2D images. Interactive computer graphics was also useful in helping to plan the surgical access corridor.

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Hirotaka Hasegawa, Shunya Hanakita, Masahiro Shin, Mariko Kawashima, Taichi Kin, Wataru Takahashi, Yuichi Suzuki, Yuki Shinya, Hideaki Ono, Masaaki Shojima, Hirofumi Nakatomi and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECTIVE

In Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), CT angiography (CTA), MRI, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are generally used to define the nidus. Although the AVM angioarchitecture can be visualized with superior resolution using rotational angiography (RA), the efficacy of integrating RA into the GKS treatment planning process has not been elucidated.

METHODS

Using data collected from 25 consecutive patients with AVMs who were treated with GKS at the authors’ institution, two neurosurgeons independently created treatment plans for each patient before and after RA integration. For all patients, MR angiography, contrasted T1 imaging, CTA, DSA, and RA were performed before treatment. The prescription isodose volume before (PIVB) and after (PIVA) RA integration was measured. For reference purposes, a reference target volume (RTV) for each nidus was determined by two other physicians independent of the planning surgeons, and the RTV covered by the PIV (RTVPIV) was established. The undertreated volume ratio (UVR), overtreated volume ratio (OVR), and Paddick’s conformal index (CI), which were calculated as RTVPIV/RTV, RTVPIV/PIV, and (RTVPIV)2/(RTV × PIV), respectively, were measured by each neurosurgeon before and after RA integration, and the surgeons’ values at each point were averaged. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare the values obtained before and after RA integration. The percentage change from before to after RA integration was calculated for the average UVR (%ΔUVRave), OVR (%ΔOVRave), and CI (%ΔCIave) in each patient, as ([value after RA integration]/[value before RA integration] − 1) × 100. The relationships between prior histories and these percentage change values were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.

RESULTS

The average values obtained by the two surgeons for the median UVR, OVR, and CI were 0.854, 0.445, and 0.367 before RA integration and 0.882, 0.478, and 0.463 after RA integration, respectively. All variables significantly improved after compared with before RA integration (UVR, p = 0.009; OVR, p < 0.001; CI, p < 0.001). Prior hemorrhage was significantly associated with larger %ΔOVRave (median 20.8% vs 7.2%; p = 0.023) and %ΔCIave (median 33.9% vs 13.8%; p = 0.014), but not %ΔUVRave (median 4.7% vs 4.0%; p = 0.449).

CONCLUSIONS

Integrating RA into GKS treatment planning may permit better dose planning owing to clearer visualization of the nidus and, as such, may reduce undertreatment and waste irradiation. Further studies examining whether the observed RA-related improvement in dose planning also improves the radiosurgical outcome are needed.