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Jason Sheehan, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Kasandra Dassoulas, Claire Olson, Jessica Rainey and Shaojie Han

G lioblastoma is an all too common and aggressive type of intracranial tumor. The mainstays of treatment are cytoreductive surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 4 , 5 Temozolomide is a frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for patients with high-grade gliomas. Areas within high-grade gliomas have been found to be hypoxic, and hypoxia may decrease the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy. 26 In particular, the C6 line has demonstrated tumor hypoxia when used in animal models. 17 , 20 , 29 Oxygen is known to be a powerful radiosensitizer of

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Chien-Yi Chiang, Meei-Ling Sheu, Fu-Chou Cheng, Chun-Jung Chen, Hong-Lin Su, Jason Sheehan and Hung-Chuan Pan

. 3 Thus, it remains quite a substantial challenge for both clinicians and scientists. For investigation of the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, several established animal models are available. The neuropathic pain models usually share alterations in hindlimb cutaneous sensory thresholds after partial injury of a peripheral nerve. The most frequently used models are chronic constriction injury (CCI) 6 of the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation, 38 and spinal nerve ligation. 24 The animal model of CCI represents an advance in the study of neuropathic

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Jason Sheehan, Adina Ionescu, Nader Pouratian, D. Kojo Hamilton, David Schlesinger, Rod J. Oskouian Jr. and Charles Sansur

Walker-256 carcinoma in an animal model. 40 Because TSC is more soluble than crocetin and it is easier to deliver a dose that provides therapeutic benefit, TSC could be an exquisite radiosensitizer for brain tumors treated with fractionated radiation therapy or radiosurgery. This study examines the radiosensitizing effects of TSC in an in vivo GBM model. Materials and Methods Study Design and Experimental Animals A total of 31 female Sprague–Dawley rats (Charles River Laboratories, Inc.) were included in the study. Each animal weighed between 200 and 220 g

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Stephen Monteith, Jason Sheehan, Ricky Medel, Max Wintermark, Matthew Eames, John Snell, Neal F. Kassell and W. Jeff Elias

ultrasound energy to be electrically steered in such a way that the defocusing effect of the human calvaria is obviated. In one such device, 1024 individual ultrasound elements are arranged in a hemispheric orientation to allow ultrasound energy to be focused on a central point in the brain (ExAblate Neuro, InSightec; Fig. 1 ). Hynynen et al. 19 , 20 demonstrated the feasibility of treating intracranial lesions with animal models prior to the development and use of such systems in humans. McDannold et al. 34 then went on to successfully treat 3 patients with

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Fu-Chou Cheng, Meei-Ling Sheu, Hong-Lin Su, Ying-Ju Chen, Chun-Jung Chen, Wen-Ta Chiu, Jason Sheehan and Hung-Chuan Pan

Ethics Committee of Taichung Veterans General Hospital. All animals were treated and cared for in accordance with the guidelines recommended by the Ethics Committee of Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Animal Model and Group Assignments A total of 87 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were used in this study. The rats were anesthetized with 4% isoflurane during induction, followed by a maintenance dose (1%–2%). The left sciatic nerve was exposed under a microscope using the gluteal muscle-splitting method. A vessel clamp (B-3, pressure 1.5 g/mm 2 ; S

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Zhiyuan Xu, Carissa Carlson, John Snell, Matt Eames, Arik Hananel, M. Beatriz Lopes, Prashant Raghavan, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chun-Po Yen, David Schlesinger, Neal F. Kassell, Jean-Francois Aubry and Jason Sheehan

. Nevertheless, decreasing the frequency increases the probability of cavitation and of hemorrhage. The need for precise transcranial adaptive focusing techniques for an efficient treatment is relaxed, but the need for a means of ensuring cavitation safety becomes paramount. Thus, low-frequency brain treatments should be used only after thorough safety testing has been completed. Lesion Formation The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that thermal lesions can be induced with a 220-kHz MRgFUS system in a preclinical in vivo animal model and to explore the

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Stephen J. Monteith, Sagi Harnof, Ricky Medel, Britney Popp, Max Wintermark, M. Beatriz S. Lopes, Neal F. Kassell, W. Jeff Elias, John Snell, Matthew Eames, Eyal Zadicario, Krisztina Moldovan and Jason Sheehan

parameters in normal swine brains. Our results did not demonstrate any MRgFUS-related damage to the surrounding neural tissue in excess of that already caused by the ICH. There was no evidence of BBB disruption, necrosis from heating, or edema formation, as a result of treatment. In this animal model, the lysis parameters therefore appear to be safe, even when applied directly to the normal brain. This situation represents a worst-case scenario, where delivery of a sonication to an area other than the clot occurred. There did not appear to be any significant adverse events

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, with >90% of cells confirmed to have EC identity on flow cytometry (CD45-CD31+). These cells were also significantly enriched for EC-related genes such as Cdh5, Icam2, Nos3 and Pecam1. Microarray results will provide a list of genes that are significantly upregulated or downregulated in BECs after SAH, requiring further validation studies. Conclusion: BBB disruption is greater at 24h than at 48h in an experimental SAH model. This study is the first to provide whole genome expression profiling of freshly-isolated BECs derived from an SAH animal model. Thereby

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extracellular water content of brain for improved MR imaging. Preclinical safety testing in a large brain, animal model is now complete, and a clinical trial is being designed to assess the feasibility in patients with movement disorders. J Neurosurg Journal of Neurosurgery JNS 0022-3085 1933-0693 American Association of Neurological Surgeons 2015.6.JNS.AANS2014ABSTRACTS Philip L. Gildenberg Resident Award 639. Brain Computer Interface Technology for Patients Suffering Disorder of Consciousness Robert Prueckl , (Schiedlberg