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Thoralf M. Sundt Jr., Frank W. Sharbrough, Robert E. Anderson and John D. Michenfelder

✓ Ninety-three endarterectomies for carotid stenosis were monitored with cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements, and 113 with both CBF measurements and a continuous electroencephalogram (EEG). Significant CBF increase occurred only when carotid endarterectomy was for a stenosis greater than 90%. A high correlation between CBF and EEG indicated when a shunt was required. To sustain a normal EEG, the CBF ascertained by the initial slope technique must be 18 ml/100 gm/min at an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) of 40 torr. The degree of EEG change below this level during occlusion reflected the severity of reduced blood flow and was reversible with replacement of a shunt. The value and limitations of these monitoring techniques and a concept of ischemic tolerance and critical CBF are discussed.

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Ronald L. Wolf, Robert J. Ivnik, Kathryn A. Hirschorn, Frank W. Sharbrough, Gregory D. Cascino and W. Richard Marsh

✓ Decreased memory and learning efficiency may follow left temporal lobectomy. Debate exists as to whether the acquired deficit is related to the size of the surgical resection. This study addresses this question by comparing changes in cognitive performance to the extent of resection of both mesial temporal structures and lateral cortex.

The authors retrospectively reviewed 47 right-handed patients who underwent left temporal lobectomy for medically intractable seizures. To examine the effects of the extent of mesial resection, the patients were divided into two groups: those with resection at the anterior 1 to 2 cm of mesial structures versus those with resection greater than 2 cm. To examine the effects of the extent of lateral cortical resection, patients were again divided into two groups: those with lateral cortex resections of 4 cm or less versus those with resections greater than 4 cm.

Statistical analyses showed no difference in cognitive outcome between the groups defined by the extent of mesial resection. Likewise, no difference in cognitive outcome was seen between the groups defined by the extent of lateral cortical resection. Associated data analyses did, however, reveal a negative correlation of cognitive change with patient age at seizure onset. These results showed that the neurocognitive consequences of extended mesial resections were similar to those of limited mesial resections, and that the neurocognitive consequences of extended lateral cortical resections were similar to those of limited lateral cortical resections. The risk of cognitive impairment depends more on age at seizure onset than on the extent of mesial or lateral resection.

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Fredric B. Meyer, W. Richard Marsh, Edward R. Laws Jr. and Frank W. Sharbrough

✓ The results of temporal lobectomy for medically refractory seizures are analyzed in 29 boys and 21 girls with a mean age of 15.8 years. The average age at onset of seizures was 7.5 years, and the time between onset and surgery averaged 8.3 years. Postoperatively, 27 patients (54%) were seizure-free, 12 patients (24%) had only occasional auras without loss of consciousness, five patients (10%) had fewer seizures, and six (12%) were unchanged. Therefore, 78% were essentially seizure-free and 88% benefited significantly from the operation. There was no significant change in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale scores before and after surgery; however, the shorter the time between seizure onset and surgery, the greater the likelihood of improvement in verbal and perceptual intelligence quotient. Social outcome was significantly improved, and a large percentage of patients were either in school or actively employed. Early consideration of temporal lobectomy in children with medically refractory seizures is recommended.

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Thoralf M. Sundt Jr., Frank W. Sharbrough, Robert E. Anderson and John D. Michenfelder

✓ Ninety-three endarterectomies for carotid stenosis were monitored with cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements, and 113 with both CBF measurements and a continuous electroencephalogram (EEG). Significant CBF increase occurred only when carotid endarterectomy was for a stenosis greater than 90%. A high correlation between CBF and EEG indicated when a shunt was required. To sustain a normal EEG, the CBF ascertained by the initial slope technique must be 18 ml/100 gm/min at an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) of 40 torr. The degree of EEG change below this level during occlusion reflected the severity of reduced blood flow and was reversible with replacement of a shunt. The value and limitations of these monitoring techniques and a concept of ischemic tolerance and critical CBF are discussed.