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Bong Ju Moon, Justin S. Smith, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Morio Matsumoto, Jong Sam Baik and Yoon Ha

P arkinson 's disease (PD) is a degenerative neurological condition characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. In addition, a postural deformity is often present in patients with PD. A retrospective observational study has suggested that up to one-third of patients with PD exhibit a postural deformity. 2 The overall prevalence of spinal deformities in PD has been reported to be higher than that of age-matched adults without PD. 20 Patients with PD may also have concomitant neuromuscular and degenerative diseases that

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Khoi D. Than, Paul Park, Kai-Ming Fu, Stacie Nguyen, Michael Y. Wang, Dean Chou, Pierce D. Nunley, Neel Anand, Richard G. Fessler, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Behrooz A. Akbarnia, Vedat Deviren, Juan S. Uribe, Frank La Marca, Adam S. Kanter, David O. Okonkwo, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Praveen V. Mummaneni and the International Spine Study Group

M invasive surgery (MIS) techniques are increasingly used in spine surgery, including in the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD). Such techniques include minimally invasive transpsoas retroperitoneal approaches for lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Previous work has suggested that minimally invasive spinal deformity correction is associated with fewer intraoperative complications than open or hybrid techniques 9 with comparable clinical outcomes. 2 However, with the

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Alex Soroceanu, Douglas C. Burton, Bassel Georges Diebo, Justin S. Smith, Richard Hostin, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Christopher Ames, Thomas J. Errico, Shay Bess, Munish C. Gupta, Robert A. Hart, Frank J. Schwab, Virginie Lafage and International Spine Study Group

number is expected to increase. Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is common, and its incidence increases with age. The prevalence of ASD in the elderly population has been investigated, with Schwab et al. 56 reporting rates of ASD up to 68% in patients over the age of 65 years. Regarding ASD treatment, multiple reports have documented the superiority of surgical intervention and its potential ability to improve pain and disability, the 2 primary presenting complaints of patients with ASD. 5 , 23 , 61 , 62 However, several authors have identified high complication

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Christopher P. Ames, Justin S. Smith, Justin K. Scheer, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Vedat Deviren, Bertrand Moal, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Eric Klineberg, Douglas C. Burton, Robert Hart, Shay Bess, Frank J. Schwab and the International Spine Study Group

D espite the complexity of CSD and the substantial impact on patient quality of life, there exists no comprehensive classification system to serve as the basis of communication among physicians and to facilitate effective clinical and radiographic study of patients with these deformities. Without a standardized classification system, studies of CSD may suffer from heterogeneity that compromises the study findings and negatively impacts communication of the results. Other spinal conditions, including adult and pediatric scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, and

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Woojin Cho, Jonathan R. Mason, Justin S. Smith, Adam L. Shimer, Adam S. Wilson, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Francis H. Shen, Wendy M. Novicoff, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Joshua E. Heller and Vincent Arlet

R igid internal fixation of the spine can be an essential part of spine surgery in terms of maintaining deformity correction, providing stability to unstable segments, and promoting higher fusion rates. 2 For lumbosacral fusion, L5–S1 fixation alone is often insufficient in long constructs due to large cantilever forces above the base of the construct. Pelvic fixation may also be considered for high-grade spondylolisthesis, unstable sacral fractures, or sacral tumors. 6 Various augmentations have been used to help protect S-1 screws such as the Galveston

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Bhargav D. Desai, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Thomas J. Buell, Jeffrey P. Mullin, Bhiken I. Naik, Justin S. Smith and Christopher I. Shaffrey

S urgical treatments for adult spinal deformity (ASD) are typically complex procedures associated with significant blood loss and the potential risk for perioperative coagulopathy, as well as requisite blood product administration, volume resuscitation, and their associated risks. 28 , 29 Acute intraoperative blood loss can be managed with allogeneic transfusions; however, the risks include transfusion-related acute lung injury, hemolytic transfusion reactions, and transfusion-associated sepsis. 31 Reducing perioperative blood loss in complex spine surgery is

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Justin S. Smith, Ellen Shaffrey, Eric Klineberg, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Frank J. Schwab, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Justin K. Scheer, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Kai-Ming G. Fu, Munish C. Gupta, Richard Hostin, Vedat Deviren, Khaled Kebaish, Robert Hart, Douglas C. Burton, Breton Line, Shay Bess, Christopher P. Ames and The International Spine Study Group

S ubstantial improvements in surgical techniques, instrumentation, perioperative management, and reduction of risk related to comorbid conditions have broadened the indications for correction of adult spinal deformity (ASD) and have enabled correction of increasingly more complex deformities. Although data thus far seem to indicate that selected adults with spinal deformity do have significant potential for improvement with surgical treatment, overall complication rates remain high and represent areas for continued improvement 7 , 8 , 32 , 39–43 Despite

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Gregory C. Wiggins, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Mark F. Abel and Arnold H. Menezes

Pediatric spinal deformity results from multiple conditions including congenital anomalies, neuromuscular disorders, skeletal dysplasia, and developmental disorders (idiopathic). Pediatric spinal deformities can be progressive and cause pulmonary compromise, neurological deficits, and cardiovascular compromise. The classification and treatment of these disorders have evolved since surgical treatment was popularized when Harrington distraction instrumentation was introduced.

The advent of anterior-spine instrumentation systems has challenged the concepts of length of fusion needed to arrest curvature progression. Segmental fixation revolutionized the surgical treatment of these deformities. More recently, pedicle screw–augmented segmental fixation has been introduced and promises once again to shift the standard of surgical therapy. Recent advances in thoracoscopic surgery have made this technique applicable to scoliosis surgery.

Not only has surgical treatment progressed but also the classification of different forms of pediatric deformity continues to evolve. Recently, Lenke and associates proposed a new classification for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This classification attempts to address some of the shortcomings of the King classification system.

In this article the authors review the literature on pediatric spinal deformities and highlight recent insights into classification, treatment, and surgery-related complications.

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Paul Park, Kai-Ming Fu, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Juan S. Uribe, Michael Y. Wang, Stacie Tran, Adam S. Kanter, Pierce D. Nunley, David O. Okonkwo, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Dean Chou, Robert Eastlack, Neel Anand, Khoi D. Than, Joseph M. Zavatsky, Richard G. Fessler and the International Spine Study Group

A dult spinal deformity (ASD) can cause significant pain and disability. When the deformity is refractory to medical management, spinal deformity surgery can effectively improve pain and function. 14 Presently, there are many options for the surgical treatment of ASD, including minimally invasive surgery (MIS). 2 , 4 , 9 , 10 , 16 , 17 The potential advantages of MIS primarily reflect a significantly diminished exposure-related morbidity resulting in decreased bleeding, length of stay, and pain, and possibly faster recovery. Initial applications of MIS for ASD

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Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and Lawrence G. Lenke

H istorically , care for adult spinal deformity (ASD) focused on supportive measures with few surgical options that were often deemed high risk. Improvements in anesthesia and critical care, surgical techniques, and instrumentation have led to remarkable advances in ASD care over the last few decades. The population seeking ASD treatment continues to expand, as life expectancies increase and the desire to stay active into later life remains a priority. Although care for ASD has evolved from supportive to corrective, many challenges remain. Complication rates