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  • Author or Editor: Antonio A. F. De Salles x
  • By Author: Selch, Michael T. x
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Carlos A. Mattozo, Antonio A. F. De Salles, Ivan A. Klement, Alessandra Gorgulho, David McArthur, Judith M. Ford, Nzhde Agazaryan, Daniel F. Kelly and Michael T. Selch

Object

The authors analyzed the results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for the treatment of recurrent meningiomas that were described at initial resection as showing aggressive, atypical, or malignant features (nonbenign).

Methods

Twenty-five patients who underwent SRS and/or SRT for nonbenign meningiomas between December 1992 and August 2004 were included. Thirteen of these patients underwent treatment for multiple primary or recurrent lesions. In all, 52 tumors were treated. All histological sections were reviewed and reclassified according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 guidelines as benign (Grade I), atypical (Grade II), or anaplastic (Grade III) meningiomas. The median follow-up period was 42 months.

Seventeen (68%) of the cases were reclassified as follows: WHO Grade I (five cases), Grade II (11 cases), and Grade III (one case). Malignant progression occurred in eight cases (32%) during the follow-up period; these cases were considered as a separate group. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the Grades I, II, and III, and malignant progression groups were 100, 83, 0, and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). In the Grade II group, the 3-year PFS rates for patients treated with SRS and SRT were 100 and 33%, respectively (p = 0.1). After initial treatment, 22 new tumors required treatment using SRS or SRT; 17 (77%) of them occurred inside the original resection cavity. Symptomatic edema developed in one patient (4%).

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiation treatment provided effective local control of “aggressive” Grade I and Grade II meningiomas, whereas Grade III lesions were associated with poor outcome. The outcome of cases in the malignant progression group was intermediate between that of the Grade II and Grade III groups, with the lesions showing a tendency toward malignancy.

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Antonio A. F. De Salles, Alessandra G. Pedroso, Paul Medin, Nzhde Agazaryan, Timothy Solberg, Cynthia Cabatan-Awang, Dulce M. Espinosa, Judith Ford and Michael T. Selch

Object. Spinal radiosurgery was implemented to improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with malignancies. It may also be applicable to the treatment of benign lesions.

Methods. Between July 2002 and January 2004, 14 patients harboring 22 lesions were treated; 13 received single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery. Six were women. The mean age was 60.2 years (range 48–82 years). There were 11 metastases, two neurofibromas, and one meningioma. Six lesions were cervical, 10 thoracic, and six lumbar. Ten patients suffered pain, three paresthesias, two weakness, and three were asymptomatic. Seven patients underwent spinal surgery, with four receiving instrumentation. Twelve patients underwent conventional irradiation before stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy. A mean dose of 12 ± 2.7 Gy (range 8–21 Gy) was prescribed to the 91% isodose line (range 85–97%). The mean tumor volume was 25 ± 27.1 ml (range 0.75–91.8 ml). Treatment was planned using intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) fields in 15 cases, dynamic arcs in five, and conformal beams in two. The mean follow-up period was 6.1 ± 3.9 months (range 1–16 months).

Three patients became pain free and four experienced considerable relief. Weakness improved in the two patients with this preoperative symptom and the asymptomatic patients remained so. Four lesions decreased in size, five remained stable, seven progressed, and six were not followed up (two patients died before follow up). Four patients in all died, three of systemic disease and one of thoracic lesion progression. No complications due to shaped beam and IMRS/intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques were observed.

Conclusions. Shaped beam and IMRS/IMRT involving the Novalis system may delay neurological deterioration, improving QOL. The lack of complication suggests that higher doses can be delivered to improve the control rate in patients with metastases.

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Alessandra G. Pedroso, Antonio A. F. De Salles, Katayoun Tajik, Raymond Golish, Zachary Smith, Leonardo Frighetto, Timothy Solberg, Cynthia Cabatan-Awang and Michael T. Selch

Object. The authors studied outcomes and complications in patients who harbored arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and underwent stereotactic radiosurgery involving the Novalis shaped beam unit.

Methods. Between January 1998 and January 2002, 83 patients were treated with radiosurgery at University of California, Los Angeles. The mean patient age was 37.8 years. Forty-four patients completed follow up. There were 24 women. Sixteen patients underwent repeated radiosurgery. Embolization was performed in 13 patients and radiosurgery alone in 31. The mean follow-up period after embolization was 54.4 ± 21.9 months and 37.4 ± 14.6 months for radiosurgery alone. The mean peripheral dose was 15 Gy (range 12–18 Gy). The mean preradiosurgery lesion volume was 9.7 ± 11.9 ml for radiosurgery alone and 16.2 ± 11.3 ml for embolization. The AVMs in 13 patients (29.8%) were Spetzler—Martin Grade II, 12 (27.5%) were Grade III, eight (18.2%) Grade IV, and five (11.3%) were Grade V and VI each. Spetzler—Martin grade, volume, and peripheral dose were analyzed in consideration to outcome.

A positive trend (p = 0.086) was observed between Spetzler—Martin grade and obliteration rate. Volume per se did not predict obliteration (p = 0.48). A peripheral dose of 18 Gy was shown to be the most important predictor for occlusion (p = 0.007). The overall obliteration rate was 52.5%. A transient complication was noticed in one case (2.3%) and but no permanent deficits due to radiosurgery have been detected so far. Three patients (6.8%) bled after radiosurgery.

Conclusions. The range of the prescribed peripheral dose was narrow. An association between the mean peripheral dose of 15 Gy, high conformality, and homogeneous dose distribution permitted no permanent complications. Volume per se did not correlate with outcome. The next step will be to increase the peripheral dose shaping the beam and to achieve higher obliteration rates without increasing complications.