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Manish K. Kasliwal, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Leah Y. Carreon, Steven D. Glassman, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Kai-Ming G. Fu and Keith H. Bridwell

matched cohorts of adults with or without a history of short-segment spine procedure * Factor No. (%) No Prior Short-Segment Spine Op Prior Short-Segment Spine Op total no. of patients 30 30 major complications 7 12  per patient 0.23 0.40  new neurological deficit   acute 1 (3.3) 1 (3.3)   delayed 0 1 (3.3)  PE 0 2 (6.7)  cardiorespiratory (non-PE)/systemic 2 (6.7) 4 (13.3)  implant related † 2 (6.7) 1 (3.3)  vascular (intraop) 2 (6.7) 0  deep wound infection

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Carolyn J. Sparrey, Jeannie F. Bailey, Michael Safaee, Aaron J. Clark, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Justin S. Smith and Christopher P. Ames

upright walking . Science 326 : 71e.1 – 71e.6 , 2009 . (Erratum in Science 327: 781, 2010) 119 Lowe TG , Edgar M , Margulies JY , Miller NH , Raso VJ , Reinker KA , : Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research . J Bone Joint Surg Am 82-A : 1157 – 1168 , 2000 120 Luboga S : Supernumerary lumbar vertebrae in human skeletons at the Galloway Osteological Collection of Makerere University, Kampala . East Afr Med J 77 : 16 – 19 , 2000 121 Lutz JA , Otten P , Maestretti G : Late infections after dynamic

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Michael P. Kelly, Lukas P. Zebala, Han Jo Kim, Daniel M. Sciubba, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Eric Klineberg, Gregory Mundis Jr., Douglas Burton, Robert Hart, Alex Soroceanu, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage and International Spine Study Group

procedures associated with PRBC transfusion in the US. 21 , 28 Transfusion of ALLO PRBCs is not without risk. Beyond the low risk of exposure to disease, a systemic inflammatory response occurs in response to proteins carried with the PRBCs. 20 , 24 , 25 The most extreme of these inflammatory responses are known as transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload, which carry risks of morbidity and mortality. 22 Less extreme, but also concerning, is the increased risk of perioperative complications, particularly infections, related

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Justin K. Scheer, Jessica A. Tang, Justin S. Smith, Eric Klineberg, Robert A. Hart, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Douglas C. Burton, Richard Hostin, Michael F. O'Brien, Shay Bess, Khaled M. Kebaish, Vedat Deviren, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

surgeries 14 , 15 and between primary and revision procedures. 6 , 11 , 12 Rates of reoperation are frequently cited, ranging from 10% to 25%, and among the many reasons behind reoperation—including infection, curve progression, proximal junction kyphosis, implant failure, and removal of painful implants 4 , 13 , 17 —pseudarthrosis emerges as one of the most commonly documented indications. 6 , 9 , 10 , 13 , 16–18 There are also studies that have investigated the effects of demographic factors, suggesting older age as a risk factor for developing pseudarthrosis, with

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Justin K. Scheer, Justin S. Smith, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Alan H. Daniels, Robert A. Hart, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Daniel M. Sciubba, Tamir Ailon, Douglas C. Burton, Eric Klineberg, Christopher P. Ames and The International Spine Study Group

°. Exclusion criteria included spinal deformity of a neuromuscular etiology and presence of active infection or malignancy. Data Collection, Radiographic Assessment, and HRQOL The demographic and clinical data collected included patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of comorbidities, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), 10 preoperative anemia, history of depression, osteoporosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, as well as all intraoperative and perioperative complications. Surgical data collected included primary versus

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Alexander A. Theologis, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Stacie Nguyen, David O. Okonkwo, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Richard Fessler, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Bassel G. Diebo, Douglas Burton, Robert Hart, Vedat Deviren and Christopher Ames

respect to the percentages of patients who required revision operations and had minor complications. Significantly more patients in the LS+Apex group had a major complication (56% vs 12.5% in the LS-Only group, p = 0.02). Patients in the LS+Apex group had more leg weakness (31.3% vs 6.3%, p = 0.17), and more minor radiographic complications (25% vs 0%, p = 0.11) than patients in the LS-Only group. All infections in the LS+Apex group were associated with posterior incisions; no lateral incisions became infected. There were no differences in pseudarthrosis rates between

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Justin K. Scheer, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Vedat Deviren, Richard Hostin, Ian M. McCarthy, Gregory M. Mundis, Douglas C. Burton, Eric Klineberg, Munish C. Gupta, Khaled M. Kebaish, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

consisted of spinal deformity having a neuromuscular etiology and the presence of active infection or malignancy. Information regarding age, sex, body mass index, operation time, estimated blood loss, major intraoperative and postoperative complications, and HRQOL outcomes was collected. The major intraoperative complications recorded were as follows: cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, death, nerve root injury, optical deficit, vessel and/or organ injury, blood loss > 4 L, pneumothorax, and having an unplanned staged surgery. The major postoperative complications were as

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The comprehensive anatomical spinal osteotomy and anterior column realignment classification

Presented at the 2018 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Juan S. Uribe, Frank Schwab, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., David S. Xu, Jacob Januszewski, Adam S. Kanter, David O. Okonkwo, Serena S. Hu, Deviren Vedat, Robert Eastlack, Pedro Berjano and Praveen V. Mummaneni

was re-randomized and reviewed again by our 14 surgeons 2 weeks later, the intraobserver weighted Fleiss kappa coefficient was 0.98 with a 95% CI of 0.97–0.99, suggesting excellent intraobserver consistency. Discussion Compared with open surgical techniques, MIS for degenerative spinal conditions has demonstrated decreased blood loss, length of stay, and risk of infection, while also preserving paraspinal musculature. 23 , 40 However, early application of MIS for the treatment of spinal deformities was limited due to inadequate restoration of sagittal spinopelvic

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Shayan Fakurnejad, Justin K. Scheer, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Vedat Deviren, Richard Hostin, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Douglas C. Burton, Eric Klineberg, Munish Gupta, Khaled Kebaish, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames and The International Spine Study Group

kyphosis ≥ 60°. Exclusion criteria included spinal deformity stemming from a neuromuscular etiology and presence of an active infection or malignant disease. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the anatomical location of their UIV procedure as upper thoracic or thoracolumbar. A UIV in the upper thoracic region was defined as a fixation terminating between T-1 and T-6 and a UIV in the thoracolumbar region as a fixation between T-9 and L-1. Patients were also categorized according to the type of 3CO they received, that is, either a PSO or a VCR. All

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Michael P. Kelly, Lawrence G. Lenke, Jakub Godzik, Ferran Pellise, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, Stephen J. Lewis, Christopher P. Ames, Leah Y. Carreon, Michael G. Fehlings, Frank Schwab and Adam L. Shimer

subtraction) were eligible. Patients with congenital anomalies of the spine treated with any osteotomy (3CO or posterior column) and revision spine surgeries treated with any osteotomy were included. Finally, any patients with an ossified ligamentum flavum or posterior longitudinal ligament treated with a decompression as part of their reconstruction or preexisting myelopathy due to the deformity were included. Patients were excluded if they had a history of recent substance dependency, psychosocial disturbance, active malignancy, active bacterial infection (systemic or