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  • Author or Editor: Lonni R. Schultz x
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Panayiotis N. Varelas, Lotfi Hacein-Bey, Lonni Schultz, Mary Conti, Marianna V. Spanaki and Thomas A. Gennarelli

Object

The aim of this study was to examine the variables influencing the mode and location of death in patients admitted to a neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU), including the participation of a newly appointed neurointensivist (NI).

Methods

Data from all patients admitted to a university hospital NICU were prospectively collected and compared between 2 consecutive 19-month periods before and after the appointment of an NI.

Results

One thousand eighty-seven patients were admitted before and 1279 after the NI's appointment. The withdrawal of life support (WOLS) occurred in 52% of all cases of death. Death following WOLS compared with survival was independently associated with an older patient age (OR 1.04/year, 95% CI 1.03–1.05), a higher University Hospitals Consortium (UHC) expected mortality rate (OR 1.05/%, 95% CI 1.04–1.07), transfer from another hospital (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.6–8.4) or admission through the emergency department (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.4–12), admission to the neurosurgery service (OR 7.5, 95% CI 3.2–17.6), and diagnosis of an ischemic stroke (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.4–20.8) or intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.9–16.7). On discharge from the NICU, 54 patients died on the hospital ward (2.7% mortality rate). A younger patient age (OR 0.94/year, 95% CI 0.92–0.96), higher UHC-expected mortality rate (OR 1.01/%, 95% CI 1–1.03), and admission to the neurosurgery service (OR 9.35, 95% CI 1.83–47.7) were associated with death in the NICU rather than the ward. There was no association between the participation of an NI and WOLS or ward mortality rate.

Conclusions

The mode and location of death in NICU-admitted patients did not change after the appointment of an NI. Factors other than the participation of an NI—including patient age and the severity and type of neurological injury—play a significant role in the decision to withdraw life support in the NICU or dying in-hospital after discharge from the NICU.

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Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, Markian A. Pahuta, Jason M. Schwalb, Paul Park, Ilyas Aleem, David R. Nerenz, Victor Chang and for the MSSIC Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) is a statewide, multicenter quality improvement initiative. Using MSSIC data, the authors sought to identify 90-day adverse events and their associated risk factors (RFs) after cervical spine surgery.

METHODS

A total of 8236 cervical spine surgery cases were analyzed. Multivariable generalized estimating equation regression models were constructed to identify RFs for adverse events; variables tested included age, sex, diabetes mellitus, disc herniation, foraminal stenosis, central stenosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Classification System (ASA) class > II, myelopathy, private insurance, anterior versus posterior approach, revision procedures, number of surgical levels, length of procedure, blood loss, preoperative ambulation, ambulation day of surgery, length of hospital stay, and discharge disposition.

RESULTS

Ninety days after cervical spine surgery, adverse events identified included radicular findings (11.6%), readmission (7.7%), dysphagia requiring dietary modification (feeding tube or nothing by mouth [NPO]) (6.4%), urinary retention (4.7%), urinary tract infection (2.2%), surgical site hematoma (1.1%), surgical site infection (0.9%), deep vein thrombosis (0.7%), pulmonary embolism (0.5%), neurogenic bowel/bladder (0.4%), myelopathy (0.4%), myocardial infarction (0.4%), wound dehiscence (0.2%), claudication (0.2%), and ileus (0.2%). RFs for dysphagia included anterior approach (p < 0.001), fusion procedures (p = 0.030), multiple-level surgery when considering anterior procedures only (p = 0.037), and surgery duration (p = 0.002). RFs for readmission included ASA class > II (p < 0.001), while preoperative ambulation (p = 0.001) and private insurance (p < 0.001) were protective. RFs for urinary retention included increasing age (p < 0.001) and male sex (p < 0.001), while anterior-approach surgery (p < 0.001), preoperative ambulation (p = 0.001), and ambulation day of surgery (p = 0.001) were protective. Preoperative ambulation (p = 0.010) and anterior approach (p = 0.002) were protective of radicular findings.

CONCLUSIONS

A multivariate analysis from a large, multicenter, prospective database identified the common adverse events after cervical spine surgery, along with their associated RFs. This information can lead to more informed surgeons and patients. The authors found that early mobilization after cervical spine surgery has the potential to significantly decrease adverse events.

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Kevin Reinard, David R. Nerenz, Azam Basheer, Rizwan Tahir, Timothy Jelsema, Lonni Schultz, Ghaus Malik, Ellen L. Air and Jason M. Schwalb

OBJECTIVE

A number of studies have documented inequalities in care and outcomes for a variety of clinical conditions. The authors sought to identify racial and socioeconomic disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), as well as the potential underlying reasons for those disparities, which could serve as areas of focus for future quality improvement initiatives.

METHODS

The medical records of patients with an ICD-9 code of 350.1, signifying a diagnosis of TN, at the Henry Ford Medical Group (HFMG) in the period from 2006 to 2012 were searched, and clinical and socioeconomic data were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses were conducted to assess potential racial differences in subspecialty referral patterns and the specific type of treatment modality undertaken for patients with TN.

RESULTS

The authors identified 652 patients eligible for analysis. Compared with white patients, black patients were less likely to undergo percutaneous ablative procedures, stereotactic radiosurgery, or microvascular decompression (p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in the likelihood of blacks and whites undergoing a procedure once they had seen a neurosurgeon (67% vs 70%, respectively; p = 0.712). Blacks and whites were equally likely to be seen by a neurologist or neurosurgeon if they were initially seen in either the emergency room (38% vs 37%, p = 0.879) or internal medicine (48% vs 50%, p = 0.806). Among patients diagnosed (268 patients) after the 2008 publication of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the American Academy of Neurology guidelines for medical therapy for TN, fewer than 50% were on medications sanctioned by the guidelines, and there were no statistically significant racial disparities between white and black patients (p = 0.060).

CONCLUSIONS

According to data from a large database from one of the nation's largest comprehensive health care systems, there were significant racial disparities in the likelihood of a patient undergoing a procedure for TN. This appeared to stem from outside HFMG from a difference in referral patterns to the neurologists and neurosurgeons.

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Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Karam Asmaro, Mohamed Macki, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Muwaffak Abdulhak, Jason M. Schwalb, Paul Park and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) is a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, quality-improvement collaborative. Using MSSIC, the authors sought to identify the relationship between a positive Patient Health Questionnaire–2 (PHQ-2) screening, which is predictive of depression, and patient satisfaction, return to work, and achieving Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) minimal clinically important difference (MCID) scores up to 2 years after lumbar fusion.

METHODS

Data from a total of 8585 lumbar fusion patients were analyzed. Patient satisfaction was measured by the North American Spine Society patient satisfaction index. A positive PHQ-2 score is one that is ≥ 3, which has an 82.9% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity in detecting major depressive disorder. Generalized estimating equation models were constructed; variables tested include age, sex, race, past medical history, severity of surgery, and preoperative opioid usage.

RESULTS

Multivariate analysis was performed. Patients with a positive PHQ-2 score (i.e., ≥ 3) were less likely to be satisfied after lumbar fusion at 90 days (relative risk [RR] 0.93, p < 0.001), 1 year (RR 0.92, p = 0.001), and 2 years (RR 0.92, p = 0.028). A positive PHQ-2 score was also associated with decreased likelihood of returning to work at 90 days (RR 0.76, p < 0.001), 1 year (RR 0.85, p = 0.001), and 2 years (RR 0.82, p = 0.031). A positive PHQ-2 score was predictive of failure to achieve an ODI MCID at 90 days (RR 1.07, p = 0.005) but not at 1 year or 2 years after lumbar fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

A multivariate analysis based on information from a large, multicenter, prospective database on lumbar fusion patients was performed. The authors found that a positive score (≥ 3) on the PHQ-2, which is a simple and accurate screening tool for depression, predicts an inability to return to work and worse satisfaction up to 2 years after lumbar fusion. Depression is a treatable condition, and so in the same way that patients are medically optimized before surgery to decrease postoperative morbidity, perhaps patients should have preoperative psychiatric optimization to improve postoperative functional outcomes.