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Jens Rachinger, Stefan Rampp, Julian Prell, Christian Scheller, Alex Alfieri and Christian Strauss

Object

Preservation of cochlear nerve function in vestibular schwannoma (VS) removal is usually dependent on tumor size and preoperative hearing status. Tumor origin as an independent factor has not been systematically investigated.

Methods

A series of 90 patients with VSs, who underwent surgery via a suboccipitolateral route, was evaluated with respect to cochlear nerve function, tumor size, radiological findings, and intraoperatively confirmed tumor origin. All patients were reevaluated 12 months after surgery.

Results

Despite comparable preoperative cochlear nerve status and larger tumor sizes, hearing preservation was achieved in 42% of patients with tumor originating from the superior vestibular nerve, compared with 16% of those with tumor originating from the inferior vestibular nerve.

Conclusions

Tumor origin is an important prognostic factor for cochlear nerve preservation in VS surgery.

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Julian Prell, Stefan Rampp, Jens Rachinger, Christian Scheller, Alex Alfieri, Liane Marquardt, Christian Strauss and Viktoria Bau

Object

High-grade postoperative facial nerve paresis after surgery for vestibular schwannoma with insufficient eye closure involves a risk for severe ocular complications. When conservative measurements are not sufficient, conventional invasive treatments include tarsorrhaphy and eyelid loading. In this study, injection of botulinum toxin into the levator palpebrae muscle was investigated as an alternative for temporary iatrogenic eye closure.

Methods

Injection of botulinum toxin was indicated by an interdisciplinary decision (neurosurgery and ophthalmology) in patients with a postoperative facial nerve paresis corresponding to a House-Brackmann Grade of IV or greater and documented abnormalities concerning corneal status such as keratopathia or conjunctival redness. Twenty-five IUs of botulinum toxin were injected transcutaneously and transconjunctivally.

Results

Six of 11 patients with high-grade paresis showed abnormal corneal findings in the early postoperative period. In 4 of these patients, botulinum toxin was injected; 1 patient declined the treatment, and in 1 patient it was not performed because of contralateral blindness. Temporary eye closure was achieved for 2 to 6 months in all cases. In all cases, facial nerve function had recovered sufficiently in terms of eye closure when the effect of botulinum toxin subsided.

Conclusion

The application of botulinum toxin for temporary iatrogenic eye closure is an excellent low-risk and temporary alternative to other invasive measures for the treatment of postoperative high-grade facial nerve paresis when the facial nerve is anatomically intact.

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Julian Prell, Jens Rachinger, Robert Smaczny, Bettina-Maria Taute, Stefan Rampp, Joerg Illert, Gershom Koman, Christian Marquart, Alexandra Rachinger, Sebastian Simmermacher, Alex Alfieri, Christian Scheller and Christian Strauss

Object

The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after craniotomy is reported to be as high as 50%. In outpatients, D-dimer levels of more than 0.5 mg/L indicate venous thromboembolism (VTE, which subsumes DVT and pulmonary embolism [PE]) with a sensitivity of 99.4% and a specificity of 38.2%. However, D-dimer levels are believed to be unreliable in postoperative patients. The authors undertook the present study to test the hypothesis that D-dimer levels would be systematically raised in a postoperative population and to define a feasible threshold for identification of VTE.

Methods

Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity was performed pre- and postoperatively to evaluate for DVT in 101 patients who underwent elective craniotomy. D-dimer levels were assessed preoperatively and on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th days after surgery. Statistical analysis was carried out to define a feasible threshold for D-dimer levels.

Results

D-dimer plasma levels were found to be systematically raised postoperatively, and they differed between patients with and without VTE in a highly significant way. On the 3rd day after surgery, D-dimer levels of more than 2 mg/L indicated VTE with a sensitivity of 95.3% and a specificity of 74.1%, allowing for the definition of a feasible threshold. D-dimer levels of more than 4 mg/L were observed in all patients who had PE during the postoperative period (n = 9). Ventilation time and duration of surgery were identified as highly significant risk factors for the development of VTE.

Conclusions

Using a threshold of 2 mg/L, D-dimer levels will indicate VTE with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in patients who have undergone craniotomy. Pulmonary embolism seems to be indicated by even higher D-dimer levels. Given that the development of D-dimer plasma levels in the postoperative period follows a principle that can be predicted and that deviations from it indicate VTE, this principle might be applicable to other types of surgery.