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  • Author or Editor: Kazuhiro Hongo x
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Tadayoshi Nakagomi, Neal F. Kassell, Tomio Sasaki, R. Michael Lehman, James C. Torner, Kazuhiro Hongo and Joung H. Lee

✓ The effect of endothelium removal on the contractile responses to KCl, hemoglobin, serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), prostaglandin (PG)F2α, PGD2, and PGE2 was investigated in canine and rabbit basilar arteries by an isometric tension-recording method. In canine basilar arteries, endothelium removal elevated the dose-response curves to 5-HT, PGF2α, and PGD2, and PGE2, but not to KCl, hemoglobin, or NE. In rabbit basilar arteries, on the other hand, removal of the endothelium elevated the dose-response curves to 5-HT, NE, PGF2α, and PGD2, but not to KCl or hemoglobin. Neither contractile nor inhibitory response was elicited by PGE2 in rabbit basilar arteries. Contraction induced by 5-HT and NE following endothelium removal had a much more pronounced effect in rabbit basilar arteries than in canine basilar arteries.

These results suggest that, following endothelium removal, abolition of the spontaneous release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor is the most probable mechanism of the enhanced vasocontraction. Since endothelial damage results from subarachnoid hemorrhage, the aforementioned mechanism of vasocontractile enhancement may play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

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Kazuhiro Hongo, Neal F. Kassell, Tadayoshi Nakagomi, Tomio Sasaki, Tetsuya Tsukahara, Hisayuki Ogawa, Dennis G. Vollmer and R. Michael Lehman

✓ Vascular contractions in response to KCl and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in rabbit basilar artery were studied in vitro using an isometric tension-measurement technique. Hemoglobin ( 10−5 M) markedly augmented contractions induced by 5-HT (10−9 to 10−6 M) and slightly augmented those induced by KCl (20 to 80 mM) in arteries with intact endothelium. On the other hand, the augmentation induced by hemoglobin was almost abolished in arteries that were chemically denuded of endothelial cells by pretreatment with saponin. Since hemoglobin is known to be a selective inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), it is possible that the augmentation of contraction by hemoglobin in endothelium-intact arteries was mediated via an inhibition of spontaneously released EDRF. The effect of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on spontaneously released EDRF was investigated by injecting 5 ml of blood into the cisterna magna and sacrificing the rabbits 2 days later. Arteries after SAH showed a significant reduction in hemoglobin-induced augmentation compared to that seen in control arteries with intact endothelium. This result suggests that spontaneously released EDRF is significantly reduced after SAH. It is concluded that EDRF is released spontaneously in the rabbit basilar artery and that inhibition of its release might be involved in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

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Tadayoshi Nakagomi, Kazuhiro Hongo, Neal F. Kassell, Tomio Sasaki, R. Michael Lehman, Hisayuki Ogawa, Dennis G. Vollmer and James C. Torner

✓ Endothelium-dependent relaxation was induced by acetylcholine (ACh), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and thrombin in isolated cerebral and extracerebral arteries obtained from rabbits and dogs. Using an isometric tension-recording method, the authors then examined the difference in the extent of relaxation between the cerebral and extracerebral arteries. In rabbits, the dose-response curve of the basilar artery for ACh was significantly different (p < 0.05) from curves of the femoral and common carotid arteries. The IC50 value (the concentration inducing a one-half inhibition of the initial contractile tone) for the basilar artery in ACh-induced relaxation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than for the common carotid artery, although the mean maximum relaxation of the basilar artery to ACh was not significantly different from that seen in extracerebral arteries. The relaxing effect of ACh in dogs was much less in the middle cerebral and basilar arteries than in the common carotid, vertebral, and femoral arteries. On the other hand, both ATP (in rabbits and dogs) and thrombin (in dogs) induced significantly more (p < 0.05) relaxation in the cerebral arteries than in the extracerebral arteries.

Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh or ATP has been demonstrated in a wide range of arteries from a variety of animals. The present results suggest that ATP has a more important role than ACh in the regulation of the vascular tone of the major cerebral arteries in these two species.