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Youichi Saitoh, Masahiko Shibata, Shun-ichiro Hirano, Masayuki Hirata, Takashi Mashimo and Toshiki Yoshimine

and/or antidepressant drugs. TABLE 1 Clinical data in eight patients with deafferentation pain * Case No. Age (yrs), Sex Underlying Disease Previous Treatment † Effective Drugs on Pharmacological Testing Results of Test Stimulation Outcome (mos) 1 68, M lt thalamic hemorrhage medication thiopental poor  — 2 60, M lt putaminal hemorrhage medication lidocaine, ketamine, good good (26)  fentanyl 3 52, M rt thalamic hemorrhage medication, block none poor  — 4 68, M rt thalamic hemorrhage medication none fair fair (12) 5 56, M lt brachial plexus avulsion medication, DREZ

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Naoki Tani, Youichi Saitoh, Masayuki Hirata, Amami Kato and Toshiki Yoshimine

evoked pain, 2, 19 these treatments have a low success rate for steady pain. In contrast, there is growing evidence to support the use of MCS to manage chronic neuropathic pain, especially pain that is classified as steady. The efficacy of MCS has been reported in cases of central pain, 14, 20 neuropathic trigeminal pain, 8 brachial plexus injury (cervical root avulsion), phantom limb pain, 14, 15 and complex regional pain syndrome type II. 17 We performed bilateral MCS to block a patient's intractable steady pain due to an SCI, and we describe our experience in

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Haruhiko Kishima, Youichi Saitoh, Yasuhiro Osaki, Hiroshi Nishimura, Amami Kato, Jun Hatazawa and Toshiki Yoshimine

intractable deafferentation pain in the left hand were included in this study ( Table 1 ). Deafferentation pain had resulted from brainstem injury (one patient), cervical spine injury (one patient), thalamic hemorrhage (one patient), and brachial plexus avulsion (three patients). The patients had suffered from intractable pain for 3 to 27 years, and medication had been ineffective. All of the patients showed slight to moderate motor weakness in the left arm. The VAS (grading range 0–100) and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to evaluate the degree of

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Takufumi Yanagisawa, Masayuki Hirata, Youichi Saitoh, Tetsu Goto, Haruhiko Kishima, Ryohei Fukuma, Hiroshi Yokoi, Yukiyasu Kamitani and Toshiki Yoshimine

showed that ECoG signals could be neurally decoded in patients with monoplegia. 31 Electrocorticography signals from the sensorimotor cortex in patients with brachial plexus avulsion were successfully decoded when the patients only intended or attempted to move their completely paralyzed upper limbs. The intention of movement was inferred accurately by a decoder trained by the same method used in the present study. By using simple and common movements that can be easily planned by patients, our method may be applicable to a large number of paralyzed patients as a