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  • Author or Editor: Roberto Martínez Álvarez x
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Stereotactic radiosurgery for tremor: systematic review

International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society practice guidelines

Nuria E. Martínez-Moreno, Arjun Sahgal, Antonio De Salles, Motohiro Hayashi, Marc Levivier, Lijun Ma, Ian Paddick, Jean Régis, Sam Ryu, Ben J. Slotman and Roberto Martínez-Álvarez

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this systematic review is to offer an objective summary of the published literature relating to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for tremor and consensus guideline recommendations.

METHODS

This systematic review was performed up to December 2016. Article selection was performed by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE electronic bibliographic databases. The following key words were used: “radiosurgery” and “tremor” or “Parkinson’s disease” or “multiple sclerosis” or “essential tremor” or “thalamotomy” or “pallidotomy.” The search strategy was not limited by study design but only included key words in the English language, so at least the abstract had to be in English.

RESULTS

A total of 34 full-text articles were included in the analysis. Three studies were prospective studies, 1 was a retrospective comparative study, and the remaining 30 were retrospective studies. The one retrospective comparative study evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS), radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT), and SRS reported similar tremor control rates, more permanent complications after DBS and RFT, more recurrence after RFT, and a longer latency period to clinical response with SRS. Similar tremor reduction rates in most of the reports were observed with SRS thalamotomy (mean 88%). Clinical complications were rare and usually not permanent (range 0%–100%, mean 17%, median 2%). Follow-up in general was too short to confirm long-term results.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS to the unilateral thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus, with a dose of 130–150 Gy, is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for reducing medically refractory tremor, and one that is recommended by the International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society.

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Stereotactic body radiotherapy for de novo spinal metastases: systematic review

International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society practice guidelines

Zain A. Husain, Arjun Sahgal, Antonio De Salles, Melissa Funaro, Janis Glover, Motohiro Hayashi, Masahiro Hiraoka, Marc Levivier, Lijun Ma, Roberto Martínez-Alvarez, J. Ian Paddick, Jean Régis, Ben J. Slotman and Samuel Ryu

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this systematic review was to provide an objective summary of the published literature pertaining to the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) specific to previously untreated spinal metastases.

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic review, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, of the literature found in a search of Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015. The search strategy was limited to publications in the English language.

RESULTS

A total of 14 full-text articles were included in the analysis. All studies were retrospective except for 2 studies, which were prospective. A total of 1024 treated spinal lesions were analyzed. The median follow-up time ranged from 9 to 49 months. A range of dose-fractionation schemes was used, the most common of which were 16–24 Gy/1 fraction (fx), 24 Gy/2 fx, 24–27 Gy/3 fx, and 30–35 Gy/5 fx. In studies that reported crude results regarding in-field local tumor control, 346 (85%) of 407 lesions remained controlled. For studies that reported actuarial values, the weighted average revealed a 90% 1-year local control rate. Only 3 studies reported data on complete pain response, and the weighted average of these results yielded a complete pain response rate of 54%. The most common toxicity was new or progressing vertebral compression fracture, which was observed in 9.4% of cases; 2 cases (0.2%) of neurologic injury were reported.

CONCLUSION

There is a paucity of prospective data specific to SBRT in patients with spinal metastases not otherwise irradiated. This systematic review found that SBRT is associated with favorable rates of local control (approximately 90% at 1 year) and complete pain response (approximately 50%), and low rates of serious adverse events were found. Practice guidelines are summarized based on these data and International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society consensus.

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Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: a systematic review

International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society practice guidelines

Constantin Tuleasca, Jean Régis, Arjun Sahgal, Antonio De Salles, Motohiro Hayashi, Lijun Ma, Roberto Martínez-Álvarez, Ian Paddick, Samuel Ryu, Ben J. Slotman and Marc Levivier

OBJECTIVES

The aims of this systematic review are to provide an objective summary of the published literature specific to the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia with stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) and to develop consensus guideline recommendations for the use of RS, as endorsed by the International Society of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (ISRS).

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic review of the English-language literature from 1951 up to December 2015 using the Embase, PubMed, and MEDLINE databases. The following MeSH terms were used in a title and abstract screening: “radiosurgery” AND “trigeminal.” Of the 585 initial results obtained, the authors performed a full text screening of 185 studies and ultimately found 65 eligible studies. Guideline recommendations were based on level of evidence and level of consensus, the latter predefined as at least 85% agreement among the ISRS guideline committee members.

RESULTS

The results for 65 studies (6461 patients) are reported: 45 Gamma Knife RS (GKS) studies (5687 patients [88%]), 11 linear accelerator (LINAC) RS studies (511 patients [8%]), and 9 CyberKnife RS (CKR) studies (263 patients [4%]). With the exception of one prospective study, all studies were retrospective.

The mean maximal doses were 71.1–90.1 Gy (prescribed at the 100% isodose line) for GKS, 83.3 Gy for LINAC, and 64.3–80.5 Gy for CKR (the latter two prescribed at the 80% or 90% isodose lines, respectively). The ranges of maximal doses were as follows: 60–97 Gy for GKS, 50–90 Gy for LINAC, and 66–90 Gy for CKR.

Actuarial initial freedom from pain (FFP) without medication ranged from 28.6% to 100% (mean 53.1%, median 52.1%) for GKS, from 17.3% to 76% (mean 49.3%, median 43.2%) for LINAC, and from 40% to 72% (mean 56.3%, median 58%) for CKR. Specific to hypesthesia, the crude rates (all Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Scale scores included) ranged from 0% to 68.8% (mean 21.7%, median 19%) for GKS, from 11.4% to 49.7% (mean 27.6%, median 28.5%) for LINAC, and from 11.8% to 51.2% (mean 29.1%, median 18.7%) for CKR. Other complications included dysesthesias, paresthesias, dry eye, deafferentation pain, and keratitis. Hypesthesia and paresthesia occurred as complications only when the anterior retrogasserian portion of the trigeminal nerve was targeted, whereas the other listed complications occurred when the root entry zone was targeted. Recurrence rates ranged from 0% to 52.2% (mean 24.6%, median 23%) for GKS, from 19% to 63% (mean 32.2%, median 29%) for LINAC, and from 15.8% to 33% (mean 25.8%, median 27.2%) for CKR. Two GKS series reported 30% and 45.3% of patients who were pain free without medication at 10 years.

CONCLUSIONS

The literature is limited in its level of evidence, with only one comparative randomized trial (1 vs 2 isocenters) reported to date. At present, one can conclude that RS is a safe and effective therapy for drug-resistant trigeminal neuralgia. A number of consensus statements have been made and endorsed by the ISRS.