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  • Author or Editor: Brandon Rocque x
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Jonathan Pindrik, Brandon G. Rocque, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, James M. Johnston and Curtis J. Rozzelle

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus (CP) cauterization (CPC) represents a viable treatment option for congenital hydrocephalus in infants younger than 2 years. Imaging studies complement clinical data in the evaluation of treatment success or failure. The objectives of this study were to investigate novel radiographic markers—cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turbulence and CP visualization—and their ability to reflect or predict clinical outcomes following ETV/CPC.

METHODS

Hydrocephalic patients younger than 2 years who were initially treated by ETV/CPC at the senior authors' institution between March 2013 and February 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, as well as the visualization of CSF turbulence and CP on pre- and postoperative fast-sequence MRI, were recorded. Radiographic images were reviewed by a blinded observer based on specific criteria for the visualization of CSF turbulence and CP. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics, including Fisher's exact test for comparisons. The research team obtained appropriate institutional review board approval for this study, without the need for informed consent.

RESULTS

Among the 32 patients (53% male and 47% female) studied, 18 of 32 (56%) responded favorably to initial or repeat ETV/CPC, with 13 of 32 (41%) patients requiring 1 surgery. Of the 19 (59%) patients whose initial ETV/CPC failed, 8 of 19 (42%) patients underwent repeat ETV/CPC, with 5 of 8 (63%) patients responding favorably. Radiographic CSF turbulence appeared more frequently following ETV/CPC failure than after ETV/CPC success (55% vs 18%, respectively; p = 0.02). The sensitivity and specificity of CSF turbulence as a radiographic marker for ETV/CPC failure were 80% and 58%, respectively. The radiographic depiction of CP disappearance following ETV/CPC from pre- to postoperative imaging occurred in 20 of 30 patients (67%). Among the patients who responded unsuccessfully to ETV/CPC and ultimately required secondary shunt insertion, 71% (10 of 14 patients) demonstrated CP persistence on postoperative imaging. In contrast, 6% (1 of 18) of patients who were treated successfully by ETV/CPC demonstrated the presence of CP on follow-up imaging. This difference reached statistical significance (p = 0.0001). The visualization of CP persistence despite ETV/CPC reflected treatment failure with 91% sensitivity and 81% specificity. The sensitivity of either or both radiographic markers to suggest ETV/CPC failure was 77%, while their specificity (both markers absent, thereby indicating ETV/CPC success) was 81%.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiographic markers correlate with clinical outcomes following the treatment of infantile hydrocephalus with ETV/CPC. Specifically, CSF turbulence may indicate ongoing pathological CSF flow dynamics, while CP absence following ETV/CPC may predict shunt independence. Future studies that incorporate prospective review and formal intra- and interobserver reliability estimates may help corroborate the utility of these radiographic markers.

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Andrew B. Boucher and Joshua J. Chern

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Brandon A. Sherrod, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, James M. Johnston, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Jeffrey P. Blount, W. Jerry Oakes and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program–Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012–2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations. SSI included deep (intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis) and superficial wound infections. The authors performed univariate analyses of SSI association with procedure, demographic, comorbidity, operative, and hospital variables, with subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent risk factors for SSI within 30 days of the index procedure. A similar analysis was performed using a detailed institutional infection database from Children's of Alabama (COA).

RESULTS

A total of 9296 nonshunt procedures were identified in NSQIP-P with an overall 30-day SSI rate of 2.7%. The 30-day SSI rate in the COA institutional database was similar (3.3% of 1103 procedures, p = 0.325). Postoperative time to SSI in NSQIP-P and COA was 14.6 ± 6.8 days and 14.8 ± 7.3 days, respectively (mean ± SD). Myelomeningocele (4.3% in NSQIP-P, 6.3% in COA), spine (3.5%, 4.9%), and epilepsy (3.4%, 3.1%) procedure categories had the highest SSI rates by procedure category in both NSQIP-P and COA. Independent SSI risk factors in NSQIP-P included postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.761, 95% CI 1.269–17.857, p = 0.021), immune disease/immunosuppressant use (OR 3.671, 95% CI 1.371–9.827, p = 0.010), cerebral palsy (OR 2.835, 95% CI 1.463–5.494, p = 0.002), emergency operation (OR 1.843, 95% CI 1.011–3.360, p = 0.046), spine procedures (OR 1.673, 95% CI 1.036–2.702, p = 0.035), acquired CNS abnormality (OR 1.620, 95% CI 1.085–2.420, p = 0.018), and female sex (OR 1.475, 95% CI 1.062–2.049, p = 0.021). The only COA factor independently associated with SSI in the COA database included clean-contaminated wound classification (OR 3.887, 95% CI 1.354–11.153, p = 0.012), with public insurance (OR 1.966, 95% CI 0.957–4.041, p = 0.066) and spine procedures (OR 1.982, 95% CI 0.955–4.114, p = 0.066) approaching significance. Both NSQIP-P and COA multivariate model C-statistics were > 0.7.

CONCLUSIONS

The NSQIP-P SSI rates, but not risk factors, were similar to data from a single center.

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Jacob R. Lepard, Kathrin D. Zimmerman, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, Jessica A. Gutman, Arsalaan A. Salehani, Brandon G. Rocque and Curtis J. Rozzelle

OBJECTIVE

Surgical treatment of herniated lumbar disc (HLD) remains rare in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate for potential disease risk factors leading to surgery based on a large single-center experience.

METHODS

Data for all patients who had undergone surgical treatment for HLD between December 2008 and December 2016 at a single pediatric tertiary care referral center were collected and compared to data for a healthy control population obtained through a Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) survey in order to determine relevant disease risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the effect of potential risk factors.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven patients in the disease cohort and 5212 healthy controls from the general population were included in the risk factor analysis. The mean body mass index was significantly higher in the disease population (30.2 vs 24.0 kg/m2, p < 0.0001). Children who had undergone microdiscectomy were more likely to be obese (OR 7.4, 95% CI 3.46–15.8, p < 0.001). No association was found between lumbar microdiscectomy and sports participation (OR 1.0, 95% CI −0.002 to 0.005, p = 0.37).

CONCLUSIONS

Microdiscectomy remains a viable and safe option in the setting of failed conservative management for pediatric HLD. Childhood obesity is a risk factor for HLD and many other diseases, which increases its importance as a public health priority.

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Esther B. Dupepe, Betsy Hopson, James M. Johnston, Curtis J. Rozzelle, W. Jerry Oakes, Jeffrey P. Blount and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

It is generally accepted that cerebrospinal fluid shunts fail most frequently in the first years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of shunt failure for a given patient age in a well-defined cohort with shunted hydrocephalus due to myelomeningocele (MMC).

METHODS

The authors analyzed data from their institutional spina bifida research database including all patients with MMC and shunted hydrocephalus. For the entire population, the number of shunt revisions in each year of life was determined. Then the number of patients at risk for shunt revision during each year of life was calculated, thus enabling them to calculate the rate of shunt revision per patient in each year of life. In this way, the timing of all shunt revision operations for the entire clinic population and the likelihood of having a shunt revision during each year of life were calculated.

RESULTS

A total of 655 patients were enrolled in the spina bifida research database, 519 of whom had a diagnosis of MMC and whose mean age was 17.48 ± 11.7 years (median 16 years, range 0–63 years). Four hundred seventeen patients had had a CSF shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus and thus are included in this analysis. There were 94 shunt revisions in the 1st year of life, which represents a rate of 0.23 revisions per patient in that year. The rate of shunt revision per patient-year initially decreased as age increased, except for an increase in revision frequency in the early teen years. Shunt revisions continued to occur as late as 43 years of age.

CONCLUSIONS

These data substantiate the idea that shunt revision surgeries in patients with MMC are most common in the 1st year of life and decrease thereafter, except for an increase in the early teen years. A persistent risk of shunt failure was observed well into adult life. These findings underscore the importance of routine follow-up of all MMC patients with shunted hydrocephalus and will aid in counseling patients and families.

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Tofey J. Leon, Elizabeth N. Kuhn, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, Burkely P. Smith, R. Shane Tubbs, James M. Johnston, Jeffrey P. Blount, Curtis J. Rozzelle, W. Jerry Oakes and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

There are sparse published data on the natural history of “benign” Chiari I malformation (CM-I)—i.e., Chiari with minimal or no symptoms at presentation and no imaging evidence of syrinx, hydrocephalus, or spinal cord signal abnormality. The purpose of this study was to review a large cohort of children with benign CM-I and to determine whether these children become symptomatic and require surgical treatment.

METHODS

Patients were identified from institutional outpatient records using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, diagnosis codes for CM-I from 1996 to 2016. After review of the medical records, patients were excluded if they 1) did not have a diagnosis of CM-I, 2) were not evaluated by a neurosurgeon, 3) had previously undergone posterior fossa decompression, or 4) had imaging evidence of syringomyelia at their first appointment. To include only patients with benign Chiari (without syrinx or classic Chiari symptoms that could prompt immediate intervention), any patient who underwent decompression within 9 months of initial evaluation was excluded. After a detailed chart review, patients were excluded if they had classical Chiari malformation symptoms at presentation. The authors then determined what changes in the clinical picture prompted surgical treatment. Patients were excluded from the multivariate logistic regression analysis if they had missing data such as race and insurance; however, these patients were included in the overall survival analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 427 patients were included for analysis with a median follow-up duration of 25.5 months (range 0.17–179.1 months) after initial evaluation. Fifteen patients had surgery at a median time of 21.0 months (range 11.3–139.3 months) after initial evaluation. The most common indications for surgery were tussive headache in 5 (33.3%), syringomyelia in 5 (33.3%), and nontussive headache in 5 (33.3%). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, rate of freedom from posterior fossa decompression was 95.8%, 94.1%, and 93.1% at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Among a large cohort of patients with benign CM-I, progression of imaging abnormalities or symptoms that warrant surgical treatment is infrequent. Therefore, these patients should be managed conservatively. However, clinical follow-up of such individuals is justified, as there is a low, but nonzero, rate of new symptom or syringomyelia development. Future analyses will determine whether imaging or clinical features present at initial evaluation are associated with progression and future need for treatment.

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Ross L. Dawkins, Joseph H. Miller, Omar I. Ramadan, Michael C. Lysek, Elizabeth N. Kuhn, Brandon G. Rocque, Michael J. Conklin, R. Shane Tubbs, Beverly C. Walters, Bonita S. Agee and Curtis J. Rozzelle

OBJECTIVE

There are many classification systems for injuries of the thoracolumbar spine. The recent Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the TLICS system in pediatric patients. The validity of the TLICS system is assessed in a companion paper.

METHODS

The medical records of pediatric patients with acute, traumatic thoracolumbar fractures at a single Level 1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. A TLICS was calculated for each patient using CT and MRI, along with the neurological examination recorded in the patient’s medical record. TLICSs were compared with the type of treatment received. Five raters scored all patients separately to assess interrater reliability.

RESULTS

TLICS calculations were completed for 81 patients. The mean patient age was 10.9 years. Girls represented 51.8% of the study population, and 80% of the study patients were white. The most common mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accidents (60.5%), falls (17.3%), and all-terrain vehicle accidents (8.6%). The mean TLICS was 3.7 ± 2.8. Surgery was the treatment of choice for 33.3% of patients. The agreement between the TLICS-suggested treatment and the actual treatment received was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The interrater reliability of the TLICS system ranged from moderate to very good, with a Fleiss’ generalized kappa (κ) value of 0.69 for the TLICS treatment suggestion among all patients; however, interrater reliability decreased when MRI was used to contribute to the TLICS. The κ value decreased from 0.73 to 0.57 for patients with CT only vs patients with CT/MRI or MRI only, respectively (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the agreement between suggested treatment and actual treatment was worse when MRI was used as part of injury assessment.

CONCLUSIONS

The TLICS system demonstrates good interrater reliability among physicians assessing thoracolumbar fracture treatment in pediatric patients. Physicians should be cautious when using MRI to aid in the surgical decision-making process.

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Samuel G. McClugage III, Nicholas M. B. Laskay, Brian N. Donahue, Anastasia Arynchyna, Kathrin Zimmerman, Inmaculada B. Aban, Elizabeth N. Alford, Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, Jeffrey P. Blount, Curtis J. Rozzelle, James M. Johnston and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity remains a significant problem in preterm infants. In the literature, there is a scarcity of data on the early disease process, when neurosurgeons are typically consulted for recommendations on treatment. Here, the authors sought to evaluate functional outcomes in premature infants at 2 years of age following treatment for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Their goal was to determine the relationship between factors identifiable at the time of the initial neurosurgical consult and outcomes of patients when they are 2 years of age.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective chart review of premature infants treated for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of prematurity (grade III and IV) between 2003 and 2014. Information from three time points (birth, first neurosurgical consult, and 2 years of age) was collected on each patient. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between variables known at the time of the first neurosurgical consult and each of the outcome variables.

RESULTS

One hundred thirty patients were selected for analysis. At 2 years of age, 16% of the patients had died, 88% had cerebral palsy/developmental delay (CP), 48% were nonverbal, 55% were nonambulatory, 33% had epilepsy, and 41% had visual impairment. In the logistic regression analysis, IVH grade was an independent predictor of CP (p = 0.004), which had an estimated probability of occurrence of 74% in grade III and 96% in grade IV. Sepsis at or before the time of consult was an independent predictor of visual impairment (p = 0.024), which had an estimated probability of 58%. IVH grade was an independent predictor of epilepsy (p = 0.026), which had an estimated probability of 18% in grade III and 43% in grade IV. The IVH grade was also an independent predictor of verbal function (p = 0.007), which had an estimated probability of 68% in grade III versus 41% in grade IV. A higher weeks gestational age (WGA) at birth was an independent predictor of the ability to ambulate (p = 0.0014), which had an estimated probability of 15% at 22 WGA and up to 98% at 36 WGA. The need for oscillating ventilation at consult was an independent predictor of death before 2 years of age (p = 0.001), which had an estimated probability of 42% in patients needing oscillating ventilation versus 13% in those who did not.

CONCLUSIONS

IVH grade was consistently an independent predictor of functional outcomes at 2 years. Gestational age at birth, sepsis, and the need for oscillating ventilation may also predict worse functional outcomes.