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  • Author or Editor: Daniel M. Prevedello x
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Amin B. Kassam, Johnathan A. Engh, Arlan H. Mintz and Daniel M. Prevedello

Object

The authors introduce a novel technique of intraparenchymal brain tumor resection using a rod lens endoscope and parallel instrumentation via a transparent conduit.

Methods

Over a 4-year period, 21 patients underwent completely endoscopic removal of a subcortical brain lesion by means of a transparent conduit. Image guidance was used to direct the cannulation and resection of all lesions. Postoperative MR imaging or CT was performed to assess for residual tumor in all patients, and all patients were followed up postoperatively to assess for new neurological deficits or other surgical complications.

Results

The histopathological findings were as follows: 12 metastases, 5 glioblastomas, 3 cavernous malformations, and 1 hemangioblastoma. Total radiographically confirmed resection was achieved in 8 cases, near-total in 6 cases, and subtotal in 7 cases. There were no perioperative deaths. Complications included 1 infection and 1 pulmonary embolus. There were no postoperative hematomas, no postoperative seizures, and no worsened neurological deficits in the immediate postoperative period.

Conclusions

Fully endoscopic resection may be a technically feasible method of resection for selected subcortical masses. Further experience with this technique will help to determine its applicability and safety.

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Jose M. Pascual

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Marc R. Mayberg

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Liangxue Zhou and Chao You

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Daniel M. Prevedello, Francesco Doglietto, John A. Jane Jr., Jay Jagannathan, Joseph Han and Edward R. Laws Jr.

✓The history of the endoscope exemplifies the manner in which technological advances influence medicine and surgery. Endoscopic systems have evolved and improved, and they currently provide detailed visualization of a variety of deep organ structures. Otorhinolaryngological surgeons have used the endoscope for more than 30 years. In the 1990s, a number of influential neurosurgeons and otorhinolaryngological surgeons began performing purely endoscopic pituitary surgery. Endoscopic transsphenoidal operations are now extending beyond the sella. The collaboration between otorhinolaryngologists and neurosurgeons has produced a new subspecialty of “endoscopic skull base surgery.” There is a great deal of progress still to be made in developing skills, instruments, and improving skull base repair. The extended skull base approaches allow surgical exposures from the olfactory groove to C-2 and to the infratemporal region and jugular fossa laterally. This article discusses the history of the endoscope, the pivotal technological advances, and the key figures in the burgeoning field of endoneurosurgery.

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Paolo Cappabianca, Luigi M. Cavallo, Felice Esposito and Enrico De Divitiis

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André Beer-Furlan, Bradley A. Otto, Ricardo L. Carrau and Daniel M. Prevedello

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Ricky Madhok, Daniel M. Prevedello, Paul Gardner, Ricardo L. Carrau, Carl H. Snyderman and Amin B. Kassam

Object

Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign lesions that can be diagnosed as an incidental finding associated with headaches, pituitary dysfunction, or vision deterioration. Typically, they occur in a sellar or suprasellar location. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation and outcomes associated with endoscopic endonasal resection of these lesions.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of 35 patients with a diagnosis of RCC after endoscopic endonasal resection at the University of Pittsburgh between January 1998 and July 2008.

Results

All 35 patients underwent a purely endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). The average patient age was 34 years (range 12–67 years), and the average follow-up was 19 months (range 1–60 months). Clinical follow-up data were available for 32 patients, and radiographic follow-up data were accessible for 33 patients. All of the patients underwent complete removal of the cyst contents, and according to radiography studies 2 patients had a recurrence, neither of which required reoperation. The mean cyst volume was 1052.7 mm3 (range 114–6044 mm3). Headache was a presenting symptom in 26 (81.2%) of 32 patients, with 25 (96.1%) of 26 having postoperative improvement in their headaches. Fifteen (57.7%) of the 26 patients had complete pain resolution, and 10 (38.5%) had a > 50% reduction in their pain scores. Six (18.8%) of 32 patients initially presented with pituitary dysfunction, although 2 (33.3%) had postoperative improvement. Three (9.4%) of 32 patients had temporary pituitary dysfunction postoperatively, although there was no permanent pituitary dysfunction. Neither were there any intraoperative complications, postoperative CSF leaks, or new neurological deficits. The average hospital stay was 1.8 days (range 1–5 days).

Conclusions

The EEA is a safe and effective approach in the treatment of RCCs. None of the patients in this study experienced any worsening of their preoperative symptoms or pituitary function, and 96% of the patients who had presented with headache experienced complete or significant pain relief following treatment.

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Paul A. Gardner, Daniel M. Prevedello, Amin B. Kassam, Carl H. Snyderman, Ricardo L. Carrau and Arlan H. Mintz

✓Craniopharyngiomas have always been an extremely challenging type of tumor to treat. The transsphenoidal route has been used for resection of these lesions since its introduction. The authors present a historical review of the literature from the introduction of the endonasal route for resection of craniopharyngiomas until the present. Abandoned early due to technological limitations, this approach has been expanded both in its application and in its anatomical boundaries with subsequent progressive improvements in outcomes. This expansion has coincided with advances in visualization devices, imaging guidance techniques, and anatomical understanding. The progression from the use of headlights, to microscopy, to endoscopy and fluoroscopy, and finally to modern intraoperative magnetic resonance–guided techniques, combined with collaboration between otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons, has provided the framework for the development of current techniques for the resection of sellar and suprasellar craniopharyngiomas.

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Daniel M. Prevedello, Nader Pouratian, Jonathan Sherman, John A. Jane Jr., Mary Lee Vance, M. Beatriz Lopes and Edward R. Laws Jr.

Object

Outcomes of therapy for Cushing's disease (CD) vary depending on different aspects of presentation and diagnostic studies. The authors designed this study to verify the remission rate and outcomes after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for patients with CD who had positive findings on MR imaging.

Methods

Patients who had presented with CD at the University of Virginia for initial treatment between July 1992 and December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients included in the study were considered to be optimal surgical candidates, defined as an adult (> 18 years of age) with classic clinical features of CD, laboratory studies confirming a central (pituitary/hypothalamic) adrenocorticotropic hormone–dependent source of disease, and an MR imaging study revealing a microadenoma in the sella turcica.

Results

A total of 167 patients fulfilled the criteria. Thirty were men (18%) and 137 were women (82%). The mean age was 42.3 years (range 18.2–77 years). All patients underwent TSS. Surgical remission was achieved in 148 patients (88.6%), which was correlated with the surgeon's intraoperative identification of an adenoma (p = 0.03). Histopathological confirmation of an adrenocorticotropic hormone–secreting adenoma strongly correlated with remission (p = 0.0001). Three patients (1.8%) had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and 1 patient had meningitis. Transient diabetes insipidus was diagnosed and treated in 10 patients (6%), whereas permanent diabetes insipidus occurred in 8 patients (4.8%). Panhypopituitarism followed the surgery in 14 patients (8.3%), 13 of whom underwent total hypophysectomy (9 initially and 4 with early reoperations), and in 1 of 10 patients who underwent subtotal hypophysectomy. Nineteen patients (12.8%) who were initially in remission developed recurrent CD after an average of 50 months. The mean follow-up for the 167 patients was 39 months (range 6–157 months). Gamma Knife surgery was the most common modality of radiotherapy used to treat 31 patients (18.5%) who did not achieve remission or later presented with recurrent disease. Bilateral adrenalectomies were performed in 10 patients in the series (6%), 2 of whom developed Nelson's syndrome. The overall posttreatment remission rate was 95.8%.

Conclusions

Even in patients with ideal diagnostic criteria of CD, there remain a significant number of cases in which TSS alone is not adequate to assure long-lasting remission. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to the achievement of satisfactory overall remission rates.