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Maria Mpakopoulou, Haralambos Gatos, Alexandros Brotis, Konstantinos N. Paterakis and Kostas N. Fountas

Object

Stereotactic amygdalotomy has been utilized as a surgical treatment for severe aggressive behavioral disorders. Several clinical studies have been reported since the first description of the procedure. In the current study, the authors reviewed the literature and evaluated the surgical results, neuropsychological outcome, and complication rate in patients who had undergone stereotactic amygdalotomy for severe aggressive behavioral disorders.

Methods

The PubMed database was searched using the following terms: “amygdalotomy,” “amygdalectomy,” “amygdaloidectomy,” “psychosurgery,” “aggressive disorder,” and “behavioral disorder.” Clinical series with more than 5 patients undergoing stereotactic amygdalotomy for aggressive or other behavioral disorders were included in this review. The surgical technique, anatomical target, improvement in psychiatric symptomatology, postoperative employment and social rehabilitation, postoperative neurocognitive function, procedure-related complications, and long-term follow-up were evaluated.

Results

Thirteen clinical studies met our inclusion criteria. Reported postoperative improvement in aggressive behavior varied between 33 and 100%. Procedure-related complication rates ranged from 0 to 42%, whereas the mortality rate was as high as 3.8%. In the majority of the reviewed clinical series, the performance of stereotactic amygdalotomy did not compromise a patient’s learning, language, and intellectual capabilities. The long-term follow-up, although very limited, revealed that initially observed improvement was maintained in most cases.

Conclusions

Stereotactic amygdalotomy can be considered a valid surgical treatment option for carefully selected patients with medically refractory aggressive behavioral disorders. Recent advances in imaging and stereotactic navigation can further improve outcome and minimize the complication rate associated with this psychosurgical procedure.

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Kostas N. Fountas, Anastasia Tasiou, Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki, Konstantinos N. Paterakis, Arthur A. Grigorian, Gregory P. Lee and Joe Sam Robinson Jr.

Object

Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. The Creactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. The association of elevated systemic CRP and coronary vasospasm has been well established. Additionally, elevation of the serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between elevated CRP levels in the serum and CSF and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH.

Methods

. A total of 41 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study. Their demographics, the admitting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum and CSF CRP measurements were obtained on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 48 hours of their admission. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the modified Rankin Scale.

Results

The CRP levels in serum and CSF peaked on the 3rd postadmission day, and the CRP levels in CSF were always higher than the serum levels. Patients with lower admission GCS scores and higher Hunt and Hess and Fisher grades had statistically significantly higher levels of CRP in serum and CSF. Patients with angiographic vasospasm had higher CRP measurements in serum and CSF, in a statistically significant fashion (p < 0.0001). Additionally, patients with higher CRP levels in serum and CSF had less favorable outcome in this cohort.

Conclusions

Patients with aSAH who had high Hunt and Hess and Fisher grades and low GCS scores showed elevated CRP levels in their CSF and serum. Furthermore, patients developing angiographically proven vasospasm demonstrated significantly elevated CRP levels in serum and CSF, and increased CRP measurements were strongly associated with poor clinical outcome in this cohort.

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Georgia Xiromerisiou, Efthimios Dardiotis, Vaïa Tsimourtou, Persa Maria Kountra, Konstantinos N. Paterakis, Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki, Kostas N. Fountas and Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou

Over the past few years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson disease (PD). Mutations in certain genes are found to cause monogenic forms of the disorder, with autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. These genes include alpha-synuclein, parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, and ATP13A2. The monogenic variants are important tools in identifying cellular pathways that shed light on the pathogenesis of this disease. Certain common genetic variants are also likely to modulate the risk of PD. International collaborative studies and meta-analyses have identified common variants as genetic susceptibility risk/protective factors for sporadic PD.