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Kunal S. Patel, Ricardo J. Komotar, Oszkar Szentirmai, Nelson Moussazadeh, Daniel M. Raper, Robert M. Starke, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

E , Cappabianca P , Cavallo LM , Esposito F , de Divitiis O , Messina A : Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for extrasellar craniopharyngiomas . Neurosurgery 61 : 5 Suppl 2 219 – 228 , 2007 24 de Divitiis E , Esposito F , Cappabianca P , Cavallo LM , de Divitiis O : Tuberculum sellae meningiomas: high route or low route? A series of 51 consecutive cases . Neurosurgery 62 : 556 – 563 , 2008 25 de Divitiis E , Esposito F , Cappabianca P , Cavallo LM , de Divitiis O , Esposito I : Endoscopic

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Kunal S. Patel, Shaan M. Raza, Edward D. McCoul, Aikaterini Patrona, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Mark M. Souweidane, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

described in detail. 25 , 27 , 40 Before each case, 0.25 ml of 10% fluorescein (AK-FLUOR, Akorn) was injected in 10 ml of CSF to aid in visualization of intraoperative CSF leaks. 38 , 43 Patients were placed in pin fixation for neuronavigation aided by preoperative imaging. Nasoseptal flaps were harvested when possible for skull base reconstruction. A wide sphenoidotomy and posterior ethmoidectomy were performed. The middle turbinates were identified and lateralized. Bone was then removed from the superior portion of the sella, the tuberculum sellae, and planum

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Matei A. Banu, Alpesh Mehta, Malte Ottenhausen, Justin F. Fraser, Kunal S. Patel, Oszkar Szentirmai, Vijay K. Anand, Apostolos J. Tsiouris and Theodore H. Schwartz

the number of quarters affected on both sides. Edema extending into at least three-eighths of the external capsules was considered to have a positive LMS. The Mohr classification of each anterior fossa meningioma was determined as per the classification provided by Maria Li et al. based on sagittal T1-weighted postcontrast images. 38 Mohr type was determined based on tumor size and extension into different segments of the anterior fossa from the crista galli and planum sphenoidale to the tuberculum sellae and diaphragma sellae: Type I, 1 segment and < 2 cm in size

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Shaan M. Raza, Matei A. Banu, Angela Donaldson, Kunal S. Patel, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

, hemorrhage/apoplexy, metastases); Group 2, CSF leaks/encephaloceles; Group 3, suprasellar lesions (craniopharyngiomas, xanthogranulomas, epidermoids, Rathke cleft cysts); Group 4, anterior skull base lesions (olfactory groove meningiomas, tuberculum sellae/planum meningiomas, esthesioneuroblastoma, chondro-sarcoma); Group 5, posterior skull base lesions (cavernous sinus meningioma/lymphoma/hemangioma/hemangio-pericytoma metastases, ependymoma, trigeminal schwannoma, sphenoid wing meningioma, chordoma); Group 6, intranasal lesions with/without skull base invasion (juvenile

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Aikaterini Patrona, Kunal S. Patel, Evan D. Bander, Alpesh Mehta, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

taken to preserve the vascular supply from the sphenopalatine artery. The flap was dissected off the face of the sphenoid sinus and retracted into the choana where it was stored until the end of the operation. The posterior one-third of the nasal septum adjacent to the vomer and maxillary crest was resected with a tissue shaver. This approach can be extended superiorly by removal of the tuberculum sellae and inferiorly by removal of the upper clivus. For the extended transtubercular, transplanar approach, the posterior ethmoids were completely removed to visualize