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  • Author or Editor: Gary K. Steinberg x
  • By Author: Pandey, Paritosh x
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Paritosh Pandey and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Revascularization for moyamoya disease, either by direct anastomosis or indirect procedures, is an accepted and effective form of treatment for prevention of future ischemic events. Indirect procedures do not provide sufficient collateral vessels in a subset of patients, who then have persistent or new symptoms. Repeat revascularization procedures may be recommended for these patients.

Methods

Sixteen patients underwent repeat revascularization after undergoing an indirect procedure in the same hemisphere. These patients were included in the study, and a retrospective review of their clinical details, neuroimaging results, surgical details, and outcome was performed. Direct revascularization was the procedure of choice; however, in patients with no acceptable recipient vessel (> 0.6 mm) the authors added a second indirect procedure for further revascularization.

Results

Over the last 19 years, 16 patients (8 male and 8 female patients, age range 5–48 years, mean 16.7 years, 10 pediatric and 6 adult patients) underwent repeat revascularization for moyamoya disease. Initially all patients presented with ischemic symptoms (4 transient ischemic attacks [TIAs] and 12 strokes; 2 patients had bilateral symptoms). Angiography revealed that 13 patients had bilateral disease, and 3 had unilateral disease. Initial surgery was bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) in 9, unilateral EDAS alone in 3, unilateral EDAS with contralateral superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass in 2, bilateral encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) in 1, and unilateral EMS in 1. Thirteen of the 16 patients continued to have TIAs in the hemisphere ipsilateral to surgery, whereas 1 patient had seizures and cognitive deficit, 1 had asymptomatic infarct on MR imaging, and 1 had visual symptoms. Poor revascularization was seen on angiography studies in all patients. The median duration between the surgeries was 24 months (3 months–10 years).

Repeat revascularization was performed in 23 hemispheres (16 patients). Direct revascularization was performed in 14 hemispheres (60.9%): STA-MCA bypass in 10, external carotid artery–MCA vein bypass in 2, occipital artery (OA)–MCA in 1, and OA–posterior cerebral artery in 1 hemisphere. Indirect revascularization was performed for patients without an acceptable recipient vessel, and was done in 9 hemispheres. The procedures included EMS (4 hemispheres), repeat EDAS (2), and omental transposition (3). There was 1 postoperative death in a patient undergoing a high-flow vein graft implantation. None of the other patients experienced any neurological worsening after surgery.

Follow-up was available in all patients, ranging from 3 to 144 months (mean 34 months, median 12 months). Of the 15 patients who survived repeat revascularization surgery, 12 (80%) were free from any TIA, stroke, or any other neurological symptoms. Two patients had occasional TIAs, less frequent than before, whereas 1 patient had frequent TIAs and underwent revision of the revascularization. Angiographic studies were available in 11 patients, and showed improved flow in the hemispheres in 10 patients. Follow-up MR imaging performed at 6 months did not reveal a new infarct in any patient.

Conclusions

Repeat revascularization procedures are effective for patients who are clinically symptomatic and have inadequate collateral vessels following indirect procedures. Although direct procedures are preferred, the choice of procedure depends on the operative findings and the status of donor and recipient vessels.

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Paritosh Pandey, Teresa Bell-Stephens and Gary K. Steinberg

Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by idiopathic bilateral stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries and the development of characteristic leptomeningeal collateral vessels at the base of the brain. Typical presentations include transient ischemic attacks or stroke, and hemorrhage. Presentation with movement disorders is extremely rare, especially in the pediatric population. The authors describe the cases of 4 children with moyamoya disease who presented with movement disorders.

Among 446 patients (118 pediatric) with moyamoya disease surgically treated by the senior author, 4 pediatric patients had presented with movement disorders. The clinical records, imaging studies, surgical details, and postoperative clinical and imaging data were retrospectively reviewed.

The initial presenting symptom was movement disorder in all 4 patients: chorea in 2, hemiballismus in 1, and involuntary limb shaking in 1. All the patients had watershed infarcts involving the frontal subcortical region on MR imaging. Additionally, 1 patient had a ganglionic infarct. Single-photon emission computed tomography studies showed frontoparietal cortical and subcortical hypoperfusion in all patients. Three patients had bilateral disease, whereas 1 had unilateral disease. All the patients underwent superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass. Postoperatively, all 4 patients had complete improvement in their symptoms. The SPECT scans revealed normal perfusion in 3 patients and a small residual perfusion deficit in 1.

Movement disorders are a rare presenting feature of moyamoya disease. Hypoperfusion of the frontal cortical and subcortical region was seen in all patients, and the symptomatology was attributed to ischemic dysfunction and imbalance in the cortical-subcortical-ganglionic-thalamic-cortical circuitry. Combined revascularization with superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis leads to excellent results.

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Paritosh Pandey, Michael P. Marks, Ciara D. Harraher, Erick M. Westbroek, Steven D. Chang, Huy M. Do, Richard P. Levy, Robert L. Dodd and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Grade III arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are diverse because of their variations in size (S), location in eloquent cortex (E), and presence of central venous drainage (V). Because they may have implications for management and outcome, the authors evaluated these variations in the present study.

Methods

Between 1984 and 2010, 100 patients with Grade III AVMs were treated. The AVMs were categorized by Spetzler-Martin characteristics as follows: Type 1 = S1E1V1, Type 2 = S2E1V0, Type 3 = S2E0V1, and Type 4 = S3E0V0. The occurrence of a new neurological deficit, functional status (based on modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) at discharge and follow-up, and radiological obliteration were correlated with demographic and morphological characteristics.

Results

One hundred patients (49 female and 51 male; age range 5–68 years, mean 35.8 years) were evaluated. The size of AVMs was less than 3 cm in 28 patients, 3–6 cm in 71, and greater than 6 cm in 1; 86 AVMs were located in eloquent cortex and 38 had central drainage. The AVMs were Type 1 in 28 cases, Type 2 in 60, Type 3 in 11, and Type 4 in 1. The authors performed embolization in 77 patients (175 procedures), surgery in 64 patients (74 surgeries), and radiosurgery in 49 patients (44 primary and 5 postoperative).

The mortality rate following the management of these AVMs was 1%. Fourteen patients (14%) had new neurological deficits, with 5 (5%) being disabling (mRS score > 2) and 9 (9%) being nondisabling (mRS score ≤ 2) events. Patients with Type 1 AVMs (small size) had the best outcome, with 1 (3.6%) in 28 having a new neurological deficit, compared with 72 patients with larger AVMs, of whom 13 (18.1%) had a new neurological deficit (p < 0.002). Older age (> 40 years), malformation size > 3 cm, and nonhemorrhagic presentation predicted the occurrence of new deficits (p < 0.002). Sex, eloquent cortex, and venous drainage did not confer any benefit.

In 89 cases follow-up was adequate for data to be included in the obliteration analysis. The AVM was obliterated in 78 patients (87.6%), 69 of them (88.5%) demonstrated on angiography and 9 on MRI /MR angiography. There was no difference between obliteration rates between different types of AVMs, size, eloquence, and drainage. Age, sex, and clinical presentation also did not predict obliteration.

Conclusions

Multimodality management of Grade III AVMs results in a high rate of obliteration, which was not influenced by size, venous drainage, or eloquent location. However, the development of new neurological deficits did correlate with size, whereas eloquence and venous drainage did not affect the neurological complication rate. The authors propose subclassifying the Grade III AVMs according to their size (< 3 and ≥ 3 cm) to account for treatment risk.