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Sandi K. Lam, Visish M. Srinivasan, Thomas G. Luerssen and I-Wen Pan

, many potential determinants could impact both inpatient costs and LOS, such as hydrocephalus etiology, number of chronic conditions, and age. The estimation of conventional multivariate-regression modeled cost with LOS and all other possible covariates will be biased due to collinearity between LOS and other covariates. Alternatively, a simultaneous equations model system for both cost and LOS is an option. However, we could not find a strong instrumental variable that correlated with LOS and did not correlate with total costs. Therefore, we used CoPID to identify