Holly Dickinson, Christine Carico, Miriam Nuño, Debraj Mukherjee, Alicia Ortega, Keith L. Black and Chirag G. Patil
Research on readmissions has been influenced by efforts to reduce hospital cost and avoid penalties stipulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Less emphasis has been placed on understanding these readmissions and their impact on patient outcomes. This study 1) delineates reasons for readmission, 2) explores factors associated with readmissions, and 3) describes their impact on the survival of glioblastoma patients.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of 362 cases involving patients with glioblastoma undergoing biopsy or tumor resection at their institution between 2003 and 2011. Reasons for re-hospitalization were characterized according to whether or not they were related to surgery and considered preventable. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the effect of readmission on survival and determine factors associated with re-hospitalizations.
Twenty-seven (7.5%) of 362 patients experienced unplanned readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Six patients (22.2%) were readmitted by Day 7, 14 (51.9%) by Day 14, and 20 (74.1%) by Day 21. Neurological, infectious, and thromboembolic complications were leading reasons for readmission, accounting for, respectively, 37.0%, 29.6%, and 22.2% of unplanned readmissions. Twenty-one (77.8%) of the 27 readmissions were related to surgery and 19 (70.4%) were preventable. The adjusted hazard ratio of mortality associated with a readmission was 2.03 (95% CI 1.3–3.1). Higher-functioning patients (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.9–1.0) and patients discharged home (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.1–0.6) were less likely to get readmitted.
An overwhelming fraction of documented unplanned readmissions were considered preventable and related to surgery. Patients who were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of surgery had twice the risk of mortality compared with patients who were not readmitted.
Miriam Nuño, Christine Carico, Debraj Mukherjee, Diana Ly, Alicia Ortega, Keith L. Black and Chirag G. Patil
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality patient safety indicators (PSIs) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) are administrative data-based metrics. The use of these outcomes as standard performance measures has been discussed in previous studies. With the objective of determining the applicability of these events as performance metrics among patients undergoing brain tumor surgery, this study had 2 aims: 1) to evaluate the association between PSIs, HACs, and in-hospital mortality rates; and 2) to determine a correlation between hospital volume, PSIs, and HACs.
Patients with brain tumors treated between 1998 and 2009 were captured in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Hospitals were categorized into groups according to surgical volume. Associations between PSIs, HACs, and in-hospital mortality rates were studied. Factors associated with a PSI, HAC, and mortality were evaluated in a multivariate setting.
A total of 444,751 patients with brain tumors underwent surgery in 1311 hospitals nationwide. Of these, 7.4% of patients experienced a PSI, 0.4% an HAC, and 1.9% died during their hospitalization. The occurrence of a PSI was strongly associated with mortality. Patients were 7.6 times more likely to die (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.6, CI 6.7–8.7) with the occurrence of a PSI in a multivariate analysis. Moderate to strong associations were found between HACs, PSIs, and hospital volume. Patients treated at the highest-volume hospitals compared with the lowest-volume ones had reduced odds of a PSI (aOR 0.9, CI 0.8–1.0) and HAC (aOR 0.5, CI 0.5–0.08).
Patient safety-related adverse events were strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Moderate to strong correlations were found between PSIs, HACs, and hospital procedural volume. Patients treated at the highest-volume hospitals had consistently lower rates of mortality, PSIs, and HACs compared with those treated at the lowest-volume facilities.