Shunsuke Omodaka, Hidenori Endo, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Miki Fujimura, Takashi Inoue, Toshiki Endo, Kenichi Sato, Shin-ichiro Sugiyama and Teiji Tominaga
Recent MR vessel wall imaging studies have indicated intracranial aneurysms in the active state could show circumferential enhancement along the aneurysm wall (CEAW). While ruptured aneurysms frequently show CEAW, CEAW in unruptured aneurysms at the evolving state (i.e., growing or symptomatic) has not been studied in detail. The authors quantitatively assessed the degree of CEAW in evolving unruptured aneurysms by comparing it separately to that in stable unruptured and ruptured aneurysms.
A quantitative analysis of CEAW was performed in 26 consecutive evolving aneurysms using MR vessel wall imaging. Three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spin echo sequences were obtained before and after contrast media injection, and the contrast ratio of the aneurysm wall against the pituitary stalk (CRstalk) was calculated as the indicator of CEAW. Aneurysm characteristics of evolving aneurysms were compared with those of 69 stable unruptured and 67 ruptured aneurysms.
The CRstalk values in evolving aneurysms were significantly higher than those in stable aneurysms (0.54 vs 0.34, p < 0.0001), and lower than those in ruptured aneurysms (0.54 vs 0.83, p < 0.0002). In multivariable analysis, CRstalk remained significant when comparing evolving with stable aneurysms (odds ratio [OR] 12.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.53–42.41), and with ruptured aneurysms (OR 0.083, 95% CI 0.022–0.310).
The CEAW in evolving aneurysms was higher than those in stable aneurysms, and lower than those in ruptured aneurysms. The degree of CEAW may indicate the process leading to rupture of intracranial aneurysms, which can be useful additional information to determine an indication for surgical treatment of unruptured aneurysms.
Sherif Rashad, Shin-ichiro Sugiyama, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Kenichi Sato, Hidenori Endo, Shunsuke Omodaka, Yasushi Matsumoto, Miki Fujimura and Teiji Tominaga
Risk factors for aneurysm rupture have been extensively studied, with several factors showing significant correlations with rupture status. Several studies have shown that aneurysm shape and hemodynamics change after rupture. In the present study the authors investigated a static factor, the bifurcation angle, which does not change after rupture, to understand its effect on aneurysm rupture risk and hemodynamics.
A hospital database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with cerebral aneurysms treated surgically or endovascularly in the period between 2008 and 2015. After acquiring 3D rotational angiographic data, 3D stereolithography models were created and computational fluid dynamic analysis was performed using commercially available software. Patient data (age and sex), morphometric factors (aneurysm volume and maximum height, aspect ratio, bifurcation angle, bottleneck ratio, and neck/parent artery ratio), and hemodynamic factors (inflow coefficient and wall shear stress) were statistically compared between ruptured and unruptured groups.
Seventy-one basilar tip aneurysms were included in this study, 22 ruptured and 49 unruptured. Univariate analysis showed aspect ratio, bifurcation angle, bottleneck ratio, and inflow coefficient were significantly correlated with a ruptured status. Logistic regression analysis showed that aspect ratio and bifurcation angle were significant predictors of a ruptured status. Bifurcation angle was inversely correlated with inflow coefficient (p < 0.0005), which in turn correlated directly with mean (p = 0.028) and maximum (p = 0.014) wall shear stress (WSS) using Pearson's correlation coefficient, whereas aspect ratio was inversely correlated with mean (0.012) and minimum (p = 0.018) WSS.
Bifurcation angle and aspect ratio are independent predictors for aneurysm rupture. Bifurcation angle, which does not change after rupture, is correlated with hemodynamic factors including inflow coefficient and WSS, as well as rupture status. Aneurysms with the hands-up bifurcation configuration are more prone to rupture than aneurysms with other bifurcation configurations.