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Ryszard M. Pluta, John A. Butman, Bawarjan Schatlo, Dennis L. Johnson and Edward H. Oldfield

related to the risk of vasospasm and clinical outcome. 12 , 24 The risk of vasospasm development, which is zero during the first 2 days after SAH, 46 gradually increases by almost 11% a day through Day 7 and then decreases through the next week. 40 , 46 The dissolution of the clot in the subarachnoid space has a half-life of 5.4 days and is independent of initial clot volume. 30 Because resolution of vasospasm is related to diminishing clot volume, 40 , 47 many investigators attempt to accelerate clot resolution using intrathecal or intraventricular thrombolysis

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Carrie L. Pledger, Mohamed A. Elzoghby, Edward H. Oldfield, Spencer C. Payne and John A. Jane Jr.

. Laryngoscope 123 : 2112 – 2119 , 2013 18 Levy MJ , Jäger HR , Powell M , Matharu MS , Meeran K , Goadsby PJ : Pituitary volume and headache: size is not everything . Arch Neurol 61 : 721 – 725 , 2004 19 Lwu S , Edem I , Banton B , Bernstein M , Vescan A , Gentili F , : Quality of life after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: a qualitative study . Acta Neurochir (Wien) 154 : 1917 – 1922 , 2012 20 McCoul ED , Anand VK , Bedrosian JC , Schwartz TH : Endoscopic skull base surgery and its impact on sinonasal

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Gregory J. A. Murad, Stuart Walbridge, Paul F. Morrison, Nicholas Szerlip, John A. Butman, Edward H. Oldfield and Russell R. Lonser

convection, we used a previously described noncompliant delivery system that is gastight with no dead volume. 16 A syringe pump (PHD 2000, Harvard Apparatus, Inc.) was used to generate continuous pressure throughout the infusion procedure. During infusion, the pressure was transmitted from the pump to an infusate-filled, gastight, glass Hamilton syringe (total volume 250 μl), which was connected to thick-walled polyethylene tubing (OD 0.050 in, ID 0.023 in; Plastics One). The tubing was connected to the inner infusion cannula, the tip of which was placed directly into the

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R. Bryan Mason, Ryszard M. Pluta, Stuart Walbridge, David A. Wink, Edward H. Oldfield and Robert J. Boock

of the TTC, the brain slices were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution. To assess the volume of ischemic stroke, both sides of the brain slices were photographed using a digital camera, and images were analyzed using image analysis software. The infarct volume on each coronal section was reconstructed to provide the total volume in cubic millimeters. The area of infarct was assessed by three of the investigators blinded to the identity of the experimental group to which a given set of sections belonged. Experimental Design. Cerebral NO and ROS were measured in

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Russell R. Lonser, Scott D. Wait, John A. Butman, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, McClellan M. Walther, Lance S. Governale and Edward H. Oldfield

examinations were conducted at initial screening, immediately before and after an operation, and at approximately 6-month intervals after surgery. Data derived from inpatient charts, clinic notes, and operative reports were recorded. Neuroimaging Evaluation All patients underwent pre- and postoperative serial T 1 -weighted pre- and postcontrast MR imaging in a 1.5-tesla MR imager (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI). Tumor volumes were calculated by determining the largest diameter in all three coordinate planes and then computing the volume according to the following

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Robert Dallapiazza, Aaron E. Bond, Yuval Grober, Robert G. Louis, Spencer C. Payne, Edward H. Oldfield and John A. Jane Jr.

grade and MRI evidence of optic chiasm compression in both groups (p = 0.02), although there was no correlation between Knosp grade and visual field deficit. Forty-four percent of patients in the microscopic group and 45% of patients in the endoscopic group had preoperative hypopituitarism of some degree. The most common form was hypogonadism, followed by panhypopituitarism. These patients typically presented with fatigue. There was no statistical difference in preoperative endocrinopathies between the two groups. Knosp Grade and Calculated Tumor Volume

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Ramin Rak, Daniel L. Chao, Ryszard M. Pluta, James B. Mitchell, Edward H. Oldfield and Joe C. Watson

Administration In all groups, the investigators were blinded to whether drug or vehicle had been administered. In Study I, animals received 10 mg/kg Tempol or vehicle (volume calculated based on a Tempol dose of 10 mg/kg). In Study II, animals received 5 mg/kg Tempol, 20 mg/kg Tempol, or vehicle. Solutions administered in all groups were infused over 20 minutes at a rate of 50 µl/minute. Determination of Infarct Size After 4 hours of reperfusion, anesthesia was again induced with a lethal dose of pentobarbital, and the rats were decapitated. Their brains were removed and

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Gautam U. Mehta, Ashok R. Asthagiri, Kamran D. Bakhtian, Sungyoung Auh, Edward H. Oldfield and Russell R. Lonser

. Imaging Evaluation Tumor location and volume were based on preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Volume was defined as: greatest anteroposterior dimension × greatest mediolateral dimension × greatest craniocaudal dimension × 0.5. 16 Each tumor was classified radiographically as either dorsal or ventral, based on the relation of its epicenter to the dentate ligament. Based on intraoperative observations, tumors were characterized as either completely intramedullary, primarily extramedullary (≥ 50% of the tumor mass was extramedullary), or composed of

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Mahmoud Messerer, Giulia Cossu, Roy Thomas Daniel and Emmanuel Jouanneau

seems reasonable to assume that for small tumors without lateral extensions, no difference has to be expected. If a difference between the two techniques exists, it should probably be expected for a high-grade tumor volume in which endoscopy has a clear advantage in increasing surgical access through extended approaches. The contrasting results of these two studies underline the need for larger, well-designed multicenter studies to decide on the value of either operative technique in determining the quality of resection in Knosp Grades 2–3 groups. References 1

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Ryszard M. Pluta, Robert J. Boock, John K. Afshar, Kathleen Clouse, Mima Bacic, Hannelore Ehrenreich and Edward H. Oldfield

the internal carotid artery (ICA) were sharply opened. A semipermeable catheter, constructed using a membrane with a 100-kD molecular-weight cutoff, was placed around the right MCA. The artery and catheter were covered with 5 ml of preclotted arterial blood. 12, 44 One end of the catheter was connected to a microosmotic pump and the other end was connected to an Ommaya reservoir (side inlet 1.5 cm; volume 0.53 ml) buried under the scalp. The total volume of fluid inside the catheter and the microdialysis fiber was 0.03 to 0.04 ml. The pump constantly delivered 0