✓ Decreased endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), in the arterial wall has been hypothesized to be a potential cause of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors sought to determine whether intracarotid infusions of newly developed NO-donating compounds (NONOates) could reverse vasospasm or prevent the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm in a primate model of SAH. Twenty-one cynomolgus monkeys were studied in two experimental settings. In an acute infusion experiment, saline or NONOate was infused intracarotidly in four normal monkeys and in four monkeys after onset of SAH. During the infusions regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in eight animals and CBF velocity in two. In a chronic infusion experiment, saline (four animals) or NONOate (diethylamine-NO [three animals] or proli-NO [six animals]) was infused intracarotidly in monkeys for 7 days after SAH. In acute infusion experiments, 3-minute intracarotid diethylamine-NO infusions reversed arteriographically confirmed vasospasm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) (as viewed on anteroposterior projection, the decrease in area was 8.4 ± 4.3% in the treatment group compared with 35 ± 12% in the control group; p < 0.004), increased rCBF by 31 ± 1.9% (p < 0.002), and decreased the mean systolic CBF velocity in the right MCA. In a long-term infusion experiment, the area of the right MCA in control animals decreased by 63 ± 5%. In animals undergoing a 7-day continuous glucantime-NO intracarotid infusion, the area of the right MCA decreased by 15 ± 6.2%, and in animals undergoing a 7-day proli-NO infusion, the area of the right MCA decreased by 11 ± 2.9% (p < 0.05). The mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the glucantime-NO group from 75 ± 12 mm Hg (during saline infusion) to 57 ± 10 mm Hg (during glucantime-NO infusion; p < 0.05), but it was unchanged in animals undergoing proli-NO infusion (76 ± 12 mm Hg vs. 78 ± 12 mm Hg). Results of these experiments show that cerebral vasospasm is both reversed and completely prevented by NO replacement. However, only the use of regional infusion of the NONOate with an extremely short half-life avoided a concomitant decrease in arterial blood pressure, which could produce cerebral ischemia in patients with impaired autoregulation of CBF after the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm.
Ryszard M. Pluta, Edward H. Oldfield, and Robert J. Boock
B. Gregory Thompson, Ryszard M. Pluta, Mary E. Girton, and Edward H. Oldfield
✓ The authors sought to develop a model for assessing in vivo regulation of cerebral vasoregulation by nitric oxide (NO), originally described as endothelial-derived relaxing factor, and to use this model to establish the role of NO in the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in primates. By using regional intraarterial perfusion, the function of NO in cerebral vasoregulation was examined without producing confounding systemic physiological effects. Issues examined were: whether resting vasomotor tone requires NO; whether NO mediates vasodilation during chemoregulation and autoregulation of CBF; and whether there is a relationship between the degree of hypercapnia and hypotension and NO production. Twelve anesthetized (0.5% isoflurane) cynomolgus monkeys were monitored continuously for cortical CBF, PaCO2, and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which were systematically altered to provide control and experimental curves of chemoregulation (CBF vs. PaCO2) and autoregulation (CBF vs. MAP) during continuous intracarotid infusion of 1) saline and 2) an NO synthase inhibitor (NOSI), either l-n-monomethyl arginine or nitro l-arginine.
During basal conditions (PaCO2 of 38–42 mm Hg) NOSI infusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) reduced cortical CBF from 62 (saline) to 53 ml/100 g/per minute (p < 0.01), although there was no effect on MAP. Increased CBF in response to hypercapnia was completely blocked by ICA NOSI. The difference in regional (r)CBF between ICA saline and NOSI infusion increased linearly with PaCO2 when PaCO2 was greater than 40 mm Hg, indicating a graded relationship of NO production, increasing PaCO2, and increasing CBF. Diminution of CBF with NOSI infusion was reversed by simultaneous ICA infusion of l-arginine, indicating a direct role of NO synthesis in the chemoregulation of CBF.
Hypotension and hypertension were induced with trimethaphan camsylate (Arfonad) and phenylephrine at constant PaCO2 (40 ± 1 mm Hg). Autoregulation in response to changes in MAP from 50 to 140 mm Hg was unaffected by ICA infusion of NOSI.
In primates, cerebral vascular tone is modulated in vivo by NO; continuous release of NO is necessary to maintain homeostatic cerebral vasodilation; vasodilation during chemoregulation of CBF is mediated directly by NO production; autoregulatory vasodilation with hypotension is not mediated by NO; and increasing PaCO2 induces increased NO production.
Brian A. Iuliano, Ryszard M. Pluta, Carla Jung, and Edward H. Oldfield
Although abnormalities in the control of endothelial vasomotility have been reported in both experimental and clinical studies, the mechanism of the endothelial dysfunction that occurs following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. Because of the absence of previous in vivo studies of endothelial function in cerebral vessels in response to SAH or cerebral vasospasm, the authors investigated endothelium—dependent responses in an established primate model of vasospasm after SAH. Endothelial function was assessed by examining vascular responses to intracarotid injections of various drugs known to act via the endothelium. Drugs that have a rapid total body clearance were selected so that their pharmacological effects would be limited to the cerebral circulation after an intracarotid infusion.
Seventeen adult male cynomolgus monkeys were used. Cerebrovascular endothelium—dependent responses were examined in control animals and in animals with SAH 7, 14, and 21 days after placement of a subarachnoid clot around the right middle cerebral artery. Cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) were recorded continuously during 5-minute intracarotid infusions of 5% dextrose vehicle, acetylcholine, histamine, bradykinin, or Calcimycin.
In control animals the intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine produced a significant (7.8 ± 9.5%) increase in CBF and a 9.3 ± 8.7% reduction in CVR in comparison with a control infusion of dextrose vehicle. The responses to acetylcholine disappeared in animals 7 days post-SAH, specifically in the subset of animals in which arteriography confirmed the presence of vasospasm. Infusion of Calcimycin produced no significant changes in CBF or CVR in control animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in CBF and increase in CVR in animals 7 days after SAH and in animals with vasospasm. An infusion of histamine or bradykinin had no significant effect on CBF or CVR.
An intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine, but not one of histamine, bradykinin, or Calcimycin, produced a measurable physiological response in the normal primate cerebrovasculature. Cerebral vasospasm that occurred after SAH produced a pathophysiological effect similar to the endothelial denudation shown in the in vitro experiments of Furchgott and Zawadzki, in which acetylcholine constricted the vessels via activation of receptors on smooth-muscle cells. Changes in vascular responses to acetylcholine and Calcimycin in animals with vasospasm, compared with control animals, provide evidence that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development and/or sustenance of vasospasm after SAH.
Laura L. Horky, Ryszard M. Pluta, Robert J. Boock, and Edward H. Oldfield
Object. Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) causes vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The most likely spasmogenic component of HbO2 is iron. Various iron chelators, such as deferoxamine, have prevented vasospasm in vivo with limited success. However, only chelators of iron in the ferric state have been studied in animal models of vasospasm after SAH. Because free radical formation requires the ferrous (Fe++) moiety and Fe++ is a potent binder of the vasodilator nitric oxide, the authors hypothesized that iron in the ferrous state causes vasospasm and that chelators of Fe++, such as 2,2′-dipyridyl, may prevent vasospasm. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of 2,2′-dipyridyl on vasospasm after induction of SAH in a primate model.
Methods. Twelve cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into two groups and then both groups underwent placement of an arterial autologous blood clot in the subarachnoid space around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). The five animals in the control group received intravenously administered saline and the seven treated animals received intravenously administered chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl) for 14 days. Sequential arteriography for assessment of MCA diameter was performed before and on the 7th day after SAH.
Conclusions. Prevention of cerebral vasospasm by means of treatment with continuous intravenous administration of 2,2′-dipyridyl is reported in a primate model of SAH. This result provides insight into the possible mechanism of delayed vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH and provides a potential preventive therapy for it.
Ryszard M. Pluta, John K. B. Afshar, Robert J. Boock, and Edward H. Oldfield
Hemoglobin released from hemolysed erythrocytes has been postulated to be responsible for delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the evidence is indirect and the mechanisms of action are unclear. Cerebrovascular tone is regulated by a dynamic balance of relaxing and contracting factors. Loss of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor—nitric oxide in the presence of oxyhemoglobin and overproduction of endothelin-1 stimulated by oxyhemoglobin have been postulated as causes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH.
Object. The authors aimed to investigate this hypothesis using in vivo microdialysis to examine time-dependent changes in the perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin in a primate model of SAH.
Methods. Nine cynomolgus monkeys underwent right-sided frontotemporal craniectomy and placement of a semipermeable microdialysis catheter adjacent to the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Saline (control group, three animals) or an arterial blood clot (SAH group, six animals) was then placed around the MCA and the catheter. Arteriographically confirmed vasospasm had developed in all animals with SAH but in none of the control animals on Day 7. The dialysate was collected daily for 12 days. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin were measured by means of spectrophotometry.
Perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin peaked on Day 2 in the control monkeys and could not be detected on Days 5 to 12. Perivascular concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin peaked on Day 7 in the SAH group, at which time the concentrations in the dialysate were 100-fold higher than in any sample obtained from the control animals. Methemoglobin levels increased only slightly, peaking between Days 7 and 12, at which time the concentration in the dialysate was 10-fold higher than in samples from the control animals.
Conclusions. This study provides in vivo evidence that the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin increase in the cerebral subarachnoid perivascular space during the development of delayed cerebral vasospasm. The results support the hypothesis that oxyhemoglobin is involved in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH and implicate deoxyhemoglobin as a possible vasospastic agent.
Ryszard M. Pluta, Alois Zauner, Jay K. Morgan, Karin M. Muraszko, and Edward H. Oldfield
✓ Although proliferative arteriopathy has been postulated to play a role in the etiology of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), histological and morphological studies examining cerebral vasospasm have produced conflicting results. To help settle this controversy, the authors used an in vivo label of cell division, bromodeoxycytidine, to assess cell proliferation in a primate model of SAH.
Fifteen cynomolgus monkeys received a clot of either whole blood (11 animals) or red blood cells (four animals) placed around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). On the day of surgery continuous intravenous infusion of bromodeoxycytidine was begun and continued until the animal was sacrificed immediately after arteriography on Day 7, 12, or 27 following surgery. Sections from the right and left MCA's were stained with a monoclonal antibody against bromodeoxcytidine, and labeled cells were counted.
Arteriographic evidence of vasospasm occurred in nine monkeys on Day 7. On Day 12 and Day 27 no monkeys had persistent vasospasm. Placement of subarachnoid clot around the right MCA increased proliferative activity across all layers of the arterial wall. Most of the labeled cells were in the adventitia and the endothelium. Although there were more dividing cells in all layers of the right MCA than the left MCA (p < 0.01), the number of stained cells per section was limited (range 0.1 to 21.2, mean 8) and the occurrence of vasospasm was not associated with the number of dividing cells in the right MCA on Day 7, 12, 27, or for all days combined (p > 0.6).
Cerebral vasospasm after SAH was not associated with the extent of proliferation of cells in the vessel wall, nor could the intensity of the limited proliferative changes have been responsible for narrowing of the vessel diameter.
John K. B. Afshar, Ryszard M. Pluta, Robert J. Boock, B. Gregory Thompson, and Edward H. Oldfield
✓ The continuous release of nitric oxide (NO) is required to maintain basal cerebrovascular tone. Oxyhemoglobin, a putative spasmogen, rapidly binds NO, implicating loss of NO in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). If vasospasm is mediated by depletion of NO in the vessel wall, it should be reversible by replacement with NO. To investigate this hypothesis, the authors placed blood clots around the right middle cerebral artery (RMCA) of four cynomolgus monkeys; four unoperated animals served as controls. Arteriography was performed before and 7 days after surgery to assess the presence and degree of vasospasm, which was quantified in the anteroposterior (AP) projection by computerized image analysis. On Day 7, cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the distribution of the right MCA was measured during four to six runs in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) of brief infusions of saline followed by NO solution. Arteriography was performed immediately after completing the final NO infusion in three of the four animals with vasospasm. Right MCA blood flow velocities were obtained using transcranial Doppler before, during, and after NO infusion in two vasospastic animals.
After ICA NO infusion, arteriographic vasospasm resolved (mean percent of preoperative AP area, 55.9%); that is, the AP areas of the proximal portion of the right MCA returned to their preoperative values (mean 91.4%; range 88%–96%). Compared to ICA saline, during ICA NO infusion CBF increased 7% in control animals and 19% in vasospastic animals (p < 0.002) without significant changes in other physiological parameters. During NO infusion, peak systolic right MCA CBF velocity decreased (130 to 109 cm/sec and 116 to 76 cm/sec) in two vasospastic animals. The effects of ICA NO on CBF and CBF velocity disappeared shortly after terminating NO infusion.
Intracarotid infusion of NO in a primate model of vasospasm 1) increases CBF, 2) decreases cerebral vascular resistance, 3) reverses arteriographic vasospasm, and 4) decreases CBF velocity in the vasospastic artery without producing systemic hypotension. These findings indicate the potential for the development of targeted therapy to reverse cerebral vasospasm after SAH.
Ryszard M. Pluta, Brian Iuliano, Hetty L. Devroom, Tung Nguyen, and Edward H. Oldfield
Object. Von Hippel—Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal-dominant neoplastic syndrome with manifestations in multiple organs, which is evoked by the deletion or mutation of a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25. Spinal hemangioblastomas (40% of VHL disease—associated lesions of the central nervous system) arise predominantly in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord and are often associated with an intraspinal cyst. Rarely, the tumor develops in the anterior aspect of the spinal cord. Ventral spinal hemangioblastomas are a surgical challenge because of difficult access and because vessels feeding the tumor originate from the anterior spinal artery.
The goal of this study was to clarify whether an anterior or posterior surgical approach is better for management of hemangioblastomas of the ventral spinal cord.
Methods. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and findings on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies in eight patients (two women and six men with a mean age of 34 ± 15 years) who underwent resection of ventral spinal hemangioblastomas (nine tumors: five cervical and four thoracic). Two surgical approaches were used to resect these tumors. A posterior approach was selected to treat five patients (laminectomy and posterior myelotomy in four patients and the posterolateral approach in one patient); an anterior approach (corpectomy and arthrodesis) was selected to treat the remaining three patients.
Immediately after surgery, the ability to ambulate remained unchanged in patients in whom an anterior approach had been performed, but deteriorated significantly in patients in whom a posterior approach had been used, because of motor weakness (four of five patients) and/or proprioceptive sensory loss (three of five patients). This difference in ambulation, despite significant improvements over time among patients in the posterior access group, remained significant 6 months after surgery. In all cases, MR images revealed complete resection of the tumor and in five patients significant or complete resolution of the intramedullary cyst was demonstrated (present in six of eight patients).
Conclusions. The outcomes of these eight patients with hemangioblastomas of the ventral spinal cord indicate that both immediate and long-term results are better when an anterior approach is selected for resection.
Ryszard M. Pluta, John A. Butman, Bawarjan Schatlo, Dennis L. Johnson, and Edward H. Oldfield
Investigators in experimental and clinical studies have used the intrathecal route to deliver drugs to prevent or treat vasospasm. However, a clot near an artery or arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may hamper distribution and limit the effects of intrathecally delivered compounds. In a primate model of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) SAH, the authors examined the distribution of Isovue-M 300 and 3% Evans blue after infusion into the cisterna magna CSF.
Ten cynomolgus monkeys were assigned to SAH and sham SAH surgery groups (5 in each group). Monkeys received CSF injections as long as 28 days after SAH and were killed 3 hours after the contrast/Evans blue injection. The authors assessed the distribution of contrast material on serial CT within 2 hours after contrast injection and during autopsy within 3 hours after Evans blue staining.
Computed tomography cisternographies showed no contrast in the vicinity of the right MCA (p < 0.05 compared with left); the distribution of contrast surrounding the entire right cerebral hemisphere was substantially reduced. Postmortem analysis demonstrated much less Evans blue staining of the right hemisphere surface compared with the left. Furthermore, the Evans blue dye did not penetrate into the right sylvian fissure, which occurred surrounding the left MCA. The authors observed the same pattern of changes and differences in contrast distribution between SAH and sham SAH animals and between the right and the left hemispheres on Days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after SAH.
Intrathecal drug distribution is substantially limited by SAH. Thus, when using intrathecal drug delivery after SAH, vasoactive drugs are unlikely to reach the arteries that are at the highest risk of delayed cerebral vasospasm.
Ryszard M. Pluta, Anna Deka-Starosta, Alois Zauner, Jay K. Morgan, Karin M. Muraszko, and Edward H. Oldfield
✓ The cause of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unknown. Recently, an association between the potent vasoconstricting peptide, neuropeptide Y, and delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH has been postulated. This was based on the findings of increased neuropeptide Y levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma after SAH in animals and humans. For this study, the primate model of SAH was used to assess the possible role of neuropeptide Y in delayed vasospasm after SAH. Fifteen cynomolgus monkeys underwent placement of a clot of either whole blood or red blood cells in the subarachnoid space around the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Sequential arteriography for assessment of MCA diameter and sampling of blood and CSF for neuropeptide Y were performed: before SAH (Day 0); 7 days after SAH, when signs of delayed cerebral vasospasm peak in this model and in humans; 12 days after SAH; and 28 days after SAH.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage did not evoke changes in CSF or plasma levels of neuropeptide Y. Nine monkeys had arteriographic evidence of vasospasm on Day 7, but no change in neuropeptide Y levels occurred in plasma or CSF. In addition, neuropeptide Y levels did not change, even after resolution of vasospasm on Day 12 or Day 28. Neuropeptide Y levels were substantially higher in CSF than in arterial plasma (p < 0.003 at each interval). No correlation was found between neuropeptide Y levels in CSF and in plasma. These results do not confirm a relationship between neuropeptide Y levels in the CSF or peripheral plasma and delayed cerebral vasospasm in SAH.