Kuniaki Ogasawara, Nobuyuki Sakai, Terumasa Kuroiwa, Kohkichi Hosoda, Koji Iihara, Kazunori Toyoda, Chiaki Sakai, Izumi Nagata, Akira Ogawa and Japanese Society for Treatment at Neck in Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group
Intracranial hemorrhage associated with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare but potentially devastating complication. In the present study the authors evaluated 4494 patients with carotid artery stenosis who had undergone CEA or CAS to clarify the clinicopathological features and outcomes of those with CHS and associated intracranial hemorrhage.
Patients with postoperative CHS were retrospectively selected, and clinicopathological features and outcomes were studied.
Sixty-one patients with CHS (1.4%) were identified, and intracranial hemorrhage developed in 27 of them (0.6%). The onset of CHS peaked on the 6th postoperative day in those who had undergone CEA and within 12 hours in those who had undergone CAS. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor postoperative control of blood pressure was significantly associated with the development of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CEA (p = 0.0164). Note, however, that none of the tested variables were significantly associated with the development of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CAS. Mortality (p = 0.0010) and morbidity (p = 0.0172) rates were significantly higher in patients with intracranial hemorrhage than in those without.
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after CEA and CAS occurs with delayed classic and acute presentations, respectively. Although strict control of postoperative blood pressure prevents intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CEA, there appears to be no relationship between blood pressure control and intracranial hemorrhage in those with CHS after CAS. Finally, the prognosis of CHS in patients with associated intracerebral hemorrhage is poor.
Mikito Hayakawa, Kenji Sugiu, Shinichi Yoshimura, Tomohito Hishikawa, Hiroshi Yamagami, Mayumi Fukuda-Doi, Nobuyuki Sakai, Koji Iihara, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Hidenori Oishi, Yasushi Ito and Yuji Matsumaru
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a serious complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Staged angioplasty (SAP)—i.e., angioplasty followed by delayed CAS—has been reported as a potential CHS-avoiding procedure. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of SAP in avoiding CHS after carotid revascularization for patients at high risk for this complication.
The authors retrospectively studied cases involving patients at high risk for CHS from 44 Japanese centers who were scheduled for SAP, regular CAS, angioplasty, or staged procedures other than SAP between October 2007 and March 2014. They investigated the rate of CHS in the population scheduled for SAP or regular CAS, and for safety analysis, the composite rate of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke in the population eventually receiving SAP or regular CAS.
Data from a total of 525 patients (532 lesions, mean age 72.5 ± 7.5 years, 74 women ) were analyzed. Scheduled procedures included SAP for 113 lesions and regular CAS for 419 lesions. The rate of CHS was lower in the SAP group than in the regular CAS group (4.4% vs 10.5%, p = 0.047). Multivariate analysis showed that SAP was negatively related to CHS (OR 0.315; 95% CI 0.120–0.828). In the population eventually receiving SAP (102 lesions) or regular CAS (428 lesions), the composite rate of TIA and ischemic stroke was comparable between the SAP group and the regular CAS group (9.8% vs 9.3%).
SAP may be an effective and safe carotid revascularization procedure to avoid CHS.
Ryota Kurogi, Akiko Kada, Kunihiro Nishimura, Satoru Kamitani, Ataru Nishimura, Tetsuro Sayama, Jyoji Nakagawara, Kazunori Toyoda, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Junichi Ono, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Toru Aruga, Shigeru Miyachi, Izumi Nagata, Shinya Matsuda, Shinichi Yoshimura, Kazuo Okuchi, Akifumi Suzuki, Fumiaki Nakamura, Daisuke Onozuka, Akihito Hagihara, Koji Iihara and the J-ASPECT Study Collaborators
Although heterogeneity in patient outcomes following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been observed across different centers, the relative merits of clipping and coiling for SAH remain unknown. The authors sought to compare the patient outcomes between these therapeutic modalities using a large nationwide discharge database encompassing hospitals with different comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities.
They analyzed data from 5214 patients with SAH (clipping 3624, coiling 1590) who had been urgently hospitalized at 393 institutions in Japan in the period from April 2012 to March 2013. In-hospital mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, cerebral infarction, complications, hospital length of stay, and medical costs were compared between the clipping and coiling groups after adjustment for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics by using mixed-model analysis.
Patients who had undergone coiling had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (12.4% vs 8.7%, OR 1.3) and a shorter median hospital stay (32.0 vs 37.0 days, p < 0.001) than those who had undergone clipping. The respective proportions of patients discharged with mRS scores of 3–6 (46.4% and 42.9%) and median medical costs (thousands US$, 35.7 and 36.7) were not significantly different between the groups. These results remained robust after further adjustment for CSC capabilities as a hospital-related covariate.
Despite the increasing use of coiling, clipping remains the mainstay treatment for SAH. Regardless of CSC capabilities, clipping was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality, similar unfavorable functional outcomes and medical costs, and a longer hospital stay as compared with coiling in 2012 in Japan. Further study is required to determine the influence of unmeasured confounders.