Ganglioglioma is the most common neoplasm causing focal epilepsy, accounting for approximately 40% of all epileptogenic tumors and for 1–4% of all pediatric CNS tumors. The optimal surgical treatment for pediatric epileptogenic ganglioglioma has not been fully established. The authors present their experience in the surgical management of these lesions.
The authors retrospectively analyzed seizure outcome and surgical results of pediatric patients with ganglioglioma treated with resection. The patients' charts were reviewed for demographic data, clinical presentation, surgical therapy, and follow-up.
The 30 patients (17 boys, 13 girls) had a history of medically intractable epilepsy. Total resection of tumor was achieved with or without adjacent epileptogenic tissue resection in all patients except 1, who underwent cyst fenestration and biopsy. Intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) was used in 21 patients. If an active spike focus or profound attenuation was observed in adjacent tissues, resection of those tissues was performed in addition to complete tumor resection (lesionectomy). The interval between onset of seizures and surgery ranged from 1 month to 9 years (mean 1.6 years). Patient age at the time of surgery ranged from 9 months to 16.3 years (mean 8.6 years). Twenty-five patients (83.3%) had complex partial seizures and 5 (16.7%) had simple partial seizures. Eighteen tumors (60%) were temporal (14 temporomesial, 4 temporolateral), and 12 (40%) were extratemporal. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years (range 1 month–8.16 years). In 2 cases (6.7%), tumor recurrence was observed. Outcome was Engel Class I in 27 cases (90.0%; 14 temporomesial, 4 temporolateral, 9 extratemporal) and Engel Class II in 3 (10.0%; all extratemporal). Tumor resection allowed good seizure control, especially in the 18 cases of temporal ganglioglioma (all Engel Class I postoperatively). Eleven patients underwent removal of extratumoral epileptogenic tissue (anterior temporal neocortex resection in 10, anterior temporal neocortex resection with anterior hippocampectomy in 1) in addition to lesionectomy using intraoperative ECoG.
Lesionectomy with adjacent temporal neocortex resection using intraoperative ECoG provided good seizure control of pediatric temporal ganglioglioma. For extratemporal ganglioglioma, lesionectomy alone can provide fairly good seizure control. Considering the memory function of the hippocampus, lesionectomy with adjacent temporal neocortical resection can be a safe, feasible, and effective treatment option for epileptogenic gangliogliomas in pediatric patients.