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  • Author or Editor: Nobuhito Saito x
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Soichi Oya, Kensuke Kawai, Hirofumi Nakatomi and Nobuhito Saito

Object

Techniques for the surgical treatment of meningioma have undergone many improvements since Simpson established the neurosurgical dogma for meningioma surgery in his seminal paper published in 1957. This study aims to assess the clinical significance and limitations of the Simpson grading system in relation to modern surgery for WHO Grade I benign meningiomas and to explore the potential of the cell proliferation index to complement the limitations in predicting their recurrence.

Methods

The surgical records of patients who underwent resection of intracranial meningiomas at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January 1995 and August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The authors investigated the relationships between recurrence-free survival (RFS) and Simpson grade or MIB-1 labeling index value.

Results

A total of 240 patients harboring 248 benign meningiomas were included in this study. Simpson Grade IV resection was associated with a significantly shorter RFS than Simpson Grade I, II, or III resection (p < 0.001), while no statistically significant difference was noted in RFS between Simpson Grades I, II, and III. Among meningiomas treated by Simpson Grade II and III resections, however, multivariate analysis revealed that an MIB-1 index of 3% or higher was associated with a significantly shorter time to recurrence.

Conclusions

The clinical significance of the different management strategies related to Simpson Grade I–III resection may have been diluted in the modern surgical era. The MIB-1 index can differentiate tumors with a high risk of recurrence, which could be beneficial for planning tailored optimal follow-up strategies. The results of this study appear to provide a significant backing for the recent shift in meningioma surgery from attempting aggressive resection to valuing the quality of the patient's life.

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Sunho Ko, Atsushi Nakazawa, Yusuke Kurose, Kanako Harada, Mamoru Mitsuishi, Shigeo Sora, Naoyuki Shono, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Nobuhito Saito and Akio Morita

OBJECTIVE

Advanced and intelligent robotic control is necessary for neurosurgical robots, which require great accuracy and precision. In this article, the authors propose methods for dynamically and automatically controlling the motion-scaling ratio of a master-slave neurosurgical robotic system to reduce the task completion time.

METHODS

Three dynamic motion-scaling modes were proposed and compared with the conventional fixed motion-scaling mode. These 3 modes were defined as follows: 1) the distance between a target point and the tip of the slave manipulator, 2) the distance between the tips of the slave manipulators, and 3) the velocity of the master manipulator. Five test subjects, 2 of whom were neurosurgeons, sutured 0.3-mm artificial blood vessels using the MM-3 neurosurgical robot in each mode.

RESULTS

The task time, total path length, and helpfulness score were evaluated. Although no statistically significant differences were observed, the mode using the distance between the tips of the slave manipulators improves the suturing performance.

CONCLUSIONS

Dynamic motion scaling has great potential for the intelligent and accurate control of neurosurgical robots.

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Taichi Kin, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Masaaki Shojima, Minoru Tanaka, Kenji Ino, Harushi Mori, Akira Kunimatsu, Hiroshi Oyama and Nobuhito Saito

Object

In this study, the authors used preoperative simulation employing 3D computer graphics (interactive computer graphics) to fuse all imaging data for brainstem cavernous malformations. The authors evaluated whether interactive computer graphics or 2D imaging correlated better with the actual operative field, particularly in identifying a developmental venous anomaly (DVA).

Methods

The study population consisted of 10 patients scheduled for surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations. Data from preoperative imaging (MRI, CT, and 3D rotational angiography) were automatically fused using a normalized mutual information method, and then reconstructed by a hybrid method combining surface rendering and volume rendering methods. With surface rendering, multimodality and multithreshold techniques for 1 tissue were applied. The completed interactive computer graphics were used for simulation of surgical approaches and assumed surgical fields. Preoperative diagnostic rates for a DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation were compared between conventional 2D imaging and interactive computer graphics employing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results

The time required for reconstruction of 3D images was 3–6 hours for interactive computer graphics. Observation in interactive mode required approximately 15 minutes. Detailed anatomical information for operative procedures, from the craniotomy to microsurgical operations, could be visualized and simulated three-dimensionally as 1 computer graphic using interactive computer graphics. Virtual surgical views were consistent with actual operative views. This technique was very useful for examining various surgical approaches. Mean (± SEM) area under the ROC curve for rate of DVA diagnosis was significantly better for interactive computer graphics (1.000 ± 0.000) than for 2D imaging (0.766 ± 0.091; p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test).

Conclusions

The authors report a new method for automatic registration of preoperative imaging data from CT, MRI, and 3D rotational angiography for reconstruction into 1 computer graphic. The diagnostic rate of DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation was significantly better using interactive computer graphics than with 2D images. Interactive computer graphics was also useful in helping to plan the surgical access corridor.

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Yuta Fukushima, Soichi Oya, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Junji Shibahara, Shunya Hanakita, Shota Tanaka, Masahiro Shin, Kensuke Kawai, Masashi Fukayama and Nobuhito Saito

Object

Meningiomas treated by subtotal or partial resection are associated with significantly shorter recurrence-free survival than those treated by gross-total resection. The Simpson grading system classifies incomplete resections into a single category, namely Simpson Grade IV, with wide variations in the volume and location of residual tumors, making it complicated to evaluate the achievement of surgical goals and predict the prognosis of these tumors. Authors of the present study investigated the factors related to necessity of retreatment and tried to identify any surgical nuances achievable with the aid of modern neurosurgical techniques for meningiomas treated using Simpson Grade IV resection.

Methods

This retrospective analysis included patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas treated using Simpson Grade IV resection as the initial therapy at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January 1995 and April 2010. Retreatment was defined as reresection or stereotactic radiosurgery due to postoperative tumor growth.

Results

A total of 38 patients were included in this study. Regrowth of residual tumor was observed in 22 patients with a mean follow-up period of 6.1 years. Retreatment was performed for 20 of these 22 tumors with regrowth. Risk factors related to significantly shorter retreatment-free survival were age younger than 50 years (p = 0.006), postresection tumor volume of 4 cm3 or more (p = 0.016), no dural detachment (p = 0.001), and skull base location (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis revealed that no dural detachment (hazard ratio [HR] 6.42, 95% CI 1.41–45.0; p = 0.02) and skull base location (HR 11.6, 95% CI 2.18–218; p = 0.002) were independent risk factors for the necessity of early retreatment, whereas postresection tumor volume of 4 cm3 or more was not a statistically significant risk factor.

Conclusions

Compared with Simpson Grade I, II, and III resections, Simpson Grade IV resection includes highly heterogeneous tumors in terms of resection rate and location of the residual mass. Despite the difficulty in analyzing such diverse data, these results draw attention to the favorable effect of dural detachment (instead of maximizing the resection rate) on long-term tumor control. Surgical strategy with an emphasis on detaching the tumor from the affected dura might be another important option in resection of high-risk meningiomas not amenable to gross-total resection.

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Hirofumi Nakatomi, Jeffrey T. Jacob, Matthew L. Carlson, Shota Tanaka, Minoru Tanaka, Nobuhito Saito, Christine M. Lohse, Colin L. W. Driscoll and Michael J. Link

OBJECTIVE

The management of vestibular schwannoma (VS) remains controversial. One commonly cited advantage of microsurgery over other treatment modalities is that tumor removal provides the greatest chance of long-term cure. However, there are very few publications with long-term follow-up to support this assertion. The purpose of the current study is to report the very long-term risk of recurrence among a large historical cohort of patients who underwent microsurgical resection.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had undergone primary microsurgical resection of unilateral VS via a retrosigmoid approach performed by a single neurosurgeon-neurotologist team between January 1980 and December 1999. Complete tumor removal was designated gross-total resection (GTR), and anything less than complete removal was designated subtotal resection (STR). The primary end point was radiological recurrence-free survival. Time-to-event analyses were performed to identify factors associated with recurrence.

RESULTS

Four hundred fourteen patients met the study inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Overall, 67 patients experienced recurrence at a median of 6.9 years following resection (IQR 3.9–12.1, range 1.2–22.5 years). Estimated recurrence-free survival rates at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following resection were 93% (95% CI 91–96, 248 patients still at risk), 78% (72–85, 88), 68% (60–77, 47), and 51% (41–64, 22), respectively. The strongest predictor of recurrence was extent of resection, with patients who underwent STR having a nearly 11-fold greater risk of recurrence than the patients treated with GTR (HR 10.55, p < 0.001). Among the 18 patients treated with STR, 15 experienced recurrence at a median of 2.7 years following resection (IQR 1.9–8.9, range 1.2–18.7). Estimated recurrence-free survival rates at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following GTR were 96% (95% CI 93–98, 241 patients still at risk), 82% (77–89, 86), 73% (65–81, 46), and 56% (45–70, 22), respectively. Estimated recurrence-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years following STR were 47% (95% CI 28–78, 7 patients still at risk), 17% (5–55, 2), and 8% (1–52, 1), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Long-term surveillance is required following microsurgical resection of VS even after GTR. Subtotal resection alone should not be considered a definitive long-term cure. These data emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up when reporting tumor control outcomes for VS.

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Masanori Yoshino, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Taichi Kin, Toki Saito, Naoyuki Shono, Seiji Nomura, Daichi Nakagawa, Shunsaku Takayanagi, Hideaki Imai, Hiroshi Oyama and Nobuhito Saito

Successful resection of hemangioblastoma depends on preoperative assessment of the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins. Simultaneous 3D visualization of feeding arteries, draining veins, and surrounding structures is needed. The present study evaluated the usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging (hr-3DMMI) for preoperative planning of hemangioblastoma. The hr-3DMMI combined MRI, MR angiography, thin-slice CT, and 3D rotated angiography. Surface rendering was mainly used for the creation of hr-3DMMI using multiple thresholds to create 3D models, and processing took approximately 3–5 hours. This hr-3DMMI technique was used in 5 patients for preoperative planning and the imaging findings were compared with the operative findings. Hr-3DMMI could simulate the whole 3D tumor as a unique sphere and show the precise penetration points of both feeding arteries and draining veins with the same spatial relationships as the original tumor. All feeding arteries and draining veins were found intraoperatively at the same position as estimated preoperatively, and were occluded as planned preoperatively. This hr-3DMMI technique could demonstrate the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins preoperatively and estimate the appropriate route for resection of the tumor. Hr-3DMMI is expected to be a very useful support tool for surgery of hemangioblastoma.

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Masanori Yoshino, Taichi Kin, Akihiro Ito, Toki Saito, Daichi Nakagawa, Kenji Ino, Kyousuke Kamada, Harushi Mori, Akira Kunimatsu, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Hiroshi Oyama and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECT

The authors assessed whether the combined use of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and contrast-enhanced (CE) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) could improve the accuracy of predicting the courses of the facial and cochlear nerves before surgery.

METHODS

The population was composed of 22 patients with vestibular schwannoma in whom both the facial and cochlear nerves could be identified during surgery. According to DTT, depicted fibers running from the internal auditory canal to the brainstem were judged to represent the facial or vestibulocochlear nerve. With regard to imaging, the authors investigated multifused CE-FIESTA scans, in which all 3D vessel models were shown simultaneously, from various angles. The low-intensity areas running along the tumor from brainstem to the internal auditory canal were judged to represent the facial or vestibulocochlear nerve.

RESULTS

For all 22 patients, the rate of fibers depicted by DTT coinciding with the facial nerve was 13.6% (3/22), and that of fibers depicted by DTT coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 63.6% (14/22). The rate of candidates for nerves predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the facial nerve was 59.1% (13/22), and that of candidates for nerves predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 4.5% (1/22). The rate of candidates for nerves predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the facial nerve was 63.6% (14/22), and that of candidates for nerves predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 63.6% (14/22). The rate of candidates predicted by DTT coinciding with both facial and cochlear nerves was 0.0% (0/22), that of candidates predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with both facial and cochlear nerves was 4.5% (1/22), and that of candidates predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with both the facial and cochlear nerves was 45.5% (10/22).

CONCLUSIONS

By using a combination of DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA, the authors were able to increase the number of vestibular schwannoma patients for whom predicted results corresponded with the courses of both the facial and cochlear nerves, a result that has been considered difficult to achieve by use of a single modality only. Although the 3D image including these prediction results helped with comprehension of the 3D operative anatomy, the reliability of prediction remains to be established.

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Hirofumi Nakatomi, Hidemi Miyazaki, Minoru Tanaka, Taichi Kin, Masanori Yoshino, Hiroshi Oyama, Masaaki Usui, Hiroshi Moriyama, Hiromi Kojima, Kimitaka Kaga and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECT

Restoration of cranial nerve functions during acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery is crucial for good outcome. The effects of minimizing the injury period and maximizing the recuperation period were investigated in 89 patients who consecutively underwent retrosigmoid unilateral AN surgery.

METHODS

Cochlear nerve and facial nerve functions were evaluated during AN surgery by use of continuous auditory evoked dorsal cochlear nucleus action potential monitoring and facial nerve root exit zone–elicited compound muscle action potential monitoring, respectively. Factors affecting preservation of function at the same (preoperative) grade were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 23 patients underwent standard treatment and investigation of the monitoring threshold for preservation of function; another 66 patients underwent extended recuperation treatment and assessment of its effect on recovery of nerve function. Both types of final action potential monitoring response and extended recuperation treatment were associated with preservation of function at the same grade.

CONCLUSIONS

Preservation of function was significantly better for patients who received extended recuperation treatment.

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Hirotaka Hasegawa, Shunya Hanakita, Masahiro Shin, Mariko Kawashima, Taichi Kin, Wataru Takahashi, Yuichi Suzuki, Yuki Shinya, Hideaki Ono, Masaaki Shojima, Hirofumi Nakatomi and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECTIVE

In Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), CT angiography (CTA), MRI, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are generally used to define the nidus. Although the AVM angioarchitecture can be visualized with superior resolution using rotational angiography (RA), the efficacy of integrating RA into the GKS treatment planning process has not been elucidated.

METHODS

Using data collected from 25 consecutive patients with AVMs who were treated with GKS at the authors’ institution, two neurosurgeons independently created treatment plans for each patient before and after RA integration. For all patients, MR angiography, contrasted T1 imaging, CTA, DSA, and RA were performed before treatment. The prescription isodose volume before (PIVB) and after (PIVA) RA integration was measured. For reference purposes, a reference target volume (RTV) for each nidus was determined by two other physicians independent of the planning surgeons, and the RTV covered by the PIV (RTVPIV) was established. The undertreated volume ratio (UVR), overtreated volume ratio (OVR), and Paddick’s conformal index (CI), which were calculated as RTVPIV/RTV, RTVPIV/PIV, and (RTVPIV)2/(RTV × PIV), respectively, were measured by each neurosurgeon before and after RA integration, and the surgeons’ values at each point were averaged. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare the values obtained before and after RA integration. The percentage change from before to after RA integration was calculated for the average UVR (%ΔUVRave), OVR (%ΔOVRave), and CI (%ΔCIave) in each patient, as ([value after RA integration]/[value before RA integration] − 1) × 100. The relationships between prior histories and these percentage change values were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.

RESULTS

The average values obtained by the two surgeons for the median UVR, OVR, and CI were 0.854, 0.445, and 0.367 before RA integration and 0.882, 0.478, and 0.463 after RA integration, respectively. All variables significantly improved after compared with before RA integration (UVR, p = 0.009; OVR, p < 0.001; CI, p < 0.001). Prior hemorrhage was significantly associated with larger %ΔOVRave (median 20.8% vs 7.2%; p = 0.023) and %ΔCIave (median 33.9% vs 13.8%; p = 0.014), but not %ΔUVRave (median 4.7% vs 4.0%; p = 0.449).

CONCLUSIONS

Integrating RA into GKS treatment planning may permit better dose planning owing to clearer visualization of the nidus and, as such, may reduce undertreatment and waste irradiation. Further studies examining whether the observed RA-related improvement in dose planning also improves the radiosurgical outcome are needed.