Scott D. Wait, Adib A. Abla, Brendan D. Killory, Peter Nakaji and Harold L. Rekate
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are devastating lesions causing refractory epilepsy, rage attacks, social ineptitude, and precocious puberty. Microsurgical and/or endoscopic resection offers an excellent risk/benefit profile for cure or improvement of epilepsy.
The authors reviewed a prospective database maintained during the first 7 years of the Barrow Hypothalamic Hamartoma program. They describe and illustrate their surgical methods, and they review data from several previous publications regarding surgical outcome.
To date, the authors have performed surgery in 165 patients for symptomatic HHs. Patients underwent an endoscopic, transcallosal, or skull base approach, or multiple approaches. Twenty-six patients (15.8%) required more than 1 treatment for their HH.
Microsurgical and endoscopic resection of symptomatic HHs are technically demanding but can be performed safely with excellent results and an acceptable risk profile. Meticulous attention to the subtleties of surgical management helps optimize outcomes.
Francisco A. Ponce, Robert F. Spetzler, Patrick P. Han, Scott D. Wait, Brendan D. Killory, Peter Nakaji and Joseph M. Zabramski
The aim of this study was to clarify the surgical indications, risks, and long-term clinical outcomes associated with the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for the surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms.
The authors retrospectively reviewed 105 deep hypothermic circulatory arrest procedures performed in 103 patients (64 females and 39 males, with a mean age of 44.8 years) to treat 104 separate aneurysms. Patients' clinical histories, radiographs, and operative reports were evaluated. There were 97 posterior circulation aneurysms: at the basilar apex in 60 patients, midbasilar artery in 21, vertebrobasilar junction in 11, superior cerebellar artery in 4, and posterior cerebral artery in 1. Seven patients harbored anterior circulation aneurysms. Two additional patients harbored nonaneurysmal lesions.
Perioperatively, 14 patients (14%) died. Five patients (5%) were lost to late follow-up. At a mean long-term follow-up of 9.7 years, 65 patients (63%) had the same or a better status after surgical intervention, 10 (10%) were worse, and 9 (9%) had died. There were 19 cases (18%) of permanent or severe complications. The combined rate of permanent treatment-related morbidity and mortality was 32%. The mean late follow-up Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4, and the annual hemorrhage rate after microsurgical clipping during cardiac standstill was 0.5%/year. Ninety-two percent of patients required no further treatment of their aneurysm at the long-term follow-up.
Cardiac standstill remains an important treatment option for a small subset of complex and giant posterior circulation aneurysms. Compared with the natural history of the disease, the risk associated with this procedure is acceptable.
Scott D. Wait, Adib A. Abla, Brendan D. Killory, Robert M. Starke, Robert F. Spetzler and Peter Nakaji
Many patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) regularly take clopidogrel, a permanent platelet inhibitor. The authors sought to determine whether taking clopidogrel in the period before CEA leads to more bleeding or other complications.
The authors performed a retrospective, institutional review board–approved review of 182 consecutive patients who underwent CEA. Clinical, radiographic, and surgical data were gleaned from hospital and clinic records. Analysis was based on the presence or absence of clopidogrel in patients undergoing CEA and was performed twice by considering clopidogrel use within 8 days and within 5 days of surgery to define the groups.
Taking clopidogrel within 8 days before surgery resulted in no statistical increase in any measure of morbidity or death. Taking clopidogrel within 5 days was associated with a small but significant increase in operative blood loss and conservatively managed postoperative neck swelling. No measure of permanent morbidity or death was increased in either clopidogrel group.
Findings in this study support the safety of preoperative clopidogrel in patients undergoing CEA.