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  • Author or Editor: Rafael J. Tamargo x
  • By Author: Murphy, Kieran J. x
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Veronica L. Chiang, Phillipe Gailloud, Kieran J. Murphy, Daniele Rigamonti and Rafael J. Tamargo

Object. The routine use of intraoperative angiography as an aid in the surgical treatment of aneurysms is uncommon. The advantages of the ability to visualize residual aneurysm or unintended occlusion of parent vessels intraoperatively must be weighed against the complications associated with repeated angiography and prolonged vascular access. The authors reviewed the results of their routine use of intraoperative angiography to determine its safety and efficacy.

Methods. Prospectively gathered data from all aneurysm cases treated surgically between January 1996 and June 2000 were reviewed. A total of 303 operations were performed in 284 patients with aneurysms; 24 patients also underwent postoperative angiography. Findings on intraoperative angiographic studies prompted reexploration and clip readjustment in 37 (11%) of the 337 aneurysms clipped. Angiography revealed parent vessel occlusion in 10 cases (3%), residual aneurysm in 22 cases (6.5%), and both residual lesion and parent vessel occlusion in five cases (1.5%). When compared with subsequent postoperative imaging, false-negative results were found on two intraoperative angiograms (8.3%) and a false-positive result was found on one (4.2%). Postoperative angiograms obtained in both false-negative cases revealed residual anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Both of these aneurysms also subsequently rebled, requiring reoperation. In the group that underwent intraoperative angiography, in 303 operations eight patients (2.6%) suffered complications, of which only one was neurological.

Conclusions. In the surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, the use of routine intraoperative angiography is safe and helpful in a significant number of cases, although it does not replace careful intraoperative inspection of the surgical field.

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Richard E. Clatterbuck, Philippe Gailloud, Lynn Ogata, Abeyu Gebremariam, Gregory N. Dietsch, Kieran J. Murphy and Rafael J. Tamargo

Object. Leukocyte—endothelial cell interactions occurring in the first hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) initiate changes in the endothelium and vessel wall that lead to an influx of leukocytes and the development of chronic vasospasm days later. Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule—1 (ICAM-1), also called CD54, appears to be a crucial step in this process. There is increasing experimental evidence that blocking the interaction between ICAM-1, which is expressed on endothelium, and integrins such as lymphocyte function—associated antigen—1 (CD11a/CD18) and macrophage antigen—1 (complement receptor 3, CD11b/CD18), which are expressed on the surface of leukocytes, prevents not only inflammation of vessel walls but also chronic vasospasm. The authors extend their previous work with monoclonal antibody (mAb) blockade of leukocyte migration to a nonhuman primate model of chronic, posthemorrhagic cerebral vasospasm.

Methods. Before surgery was performed, six young adult male cynomolgus monkeys underwent baseline selective biplane common carotid and vertebrobasilar artery cerebral angiography via a transfemoral route. On Day 0, a right frontosphenotemporal craniectomy was performed with arachnoid microdissection and placement of 2 to 3 ml of clotted autologous blood in the ipsilateral basal cisterns. The animals were given daily intravenous infusions of 2 mg/kg of either a humanized anti-CD11/CD18 or a placebo mAb beginning 30 to 60 minutes postoperatively. The monkeys were killed on Day 7 after a repeated selective cerebral angiogram was obtained. The area of contrast-containing vessels observed in each hemisphere on anteroposterior angiographic views was calculated for the angiograms obtained on Day 7 and expressed as a percentage of the area on baseline angiograms (percent control areal fraction). Review of flow cytometry and enzyme immunoassay data confirmed the presence of the anti-CD11/CD18 antibody in the serum and bound to leukocytes in the peripheral blood of treated animals. Comparisons of the groups revealed 53 ± 4.8% control vascular areal fraction in the placebo group (two animals) and 95.8 ± 9.4% in the anti-CD11/CD18—treated group (three animals), a statistically significant difference (p = 0.043, t-test).

Conclusions. These results show that blockade of leukocyte migration into the subarachnoid space by an anti-CD11/CD18 mAb is effective in preventing experimental cerebral vasospasm in nonhuman primates, despite the unaltered presence of hemoglobin in the subarachnoid space. These experimental data support the hypothesis that inflammation plays a role in cerebral vasospasm after SAH.

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Prem S. Subramanian, Phillippe H. Gailloud, Donald V. Heck, Rafael J. Tamargo, Kieran J. Murphy and Neil R. Miller

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Richard E. Clatterbuck, Philippe Gailloud, Travis Tierney, Victoria M. Clatterbuck, Kieran J. Murphy and Rafael J. Tamargo

Object. Results of prior studies in rats and rabbits show that the alteration of vasomotor tone in vasospasm following periadventitial blood exposure may be reversed, at least in part, by the administration of compounds releasing nitric oxide (NO). The authors have now generalized this finding to nonhuman primates.

Methods. Ten cynomolgus monkeys underwent cerebral angiography before and 7 days following the induction of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by the placement of 2 to 3 ml clotted autologous blood around the supraclinoid carotid, proximal anterior cerebral, and proximal middle cerebral arteries. An ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, either blank (five animals) or containing 20% w/w (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO, 4.3 mg/kg; five animals) was placed adjacent to the vessels at the time of surgery. Animals were killed on Day 7 post-SAH following repeated cerebral angiography. The mean percentage of control vascular areal fraction was calculated from angiograms. Cerebral vessels were sectioned and the mean percentage of lumen patency was calculated.

One animal that had received the DETA/NO polymer died prior to repeated angiography. In the remaining animals, DETA/NO caused a significant decrease in vasospasm compared with controls, according to both angiographic (84.8 ± 8.6 compared with 56.6 ± 5.2%, respectively, p < 0.05) and histological studies (internal carotid artery 99.3 ± 1.8 compared with 60.1 ± 4.4%, respectively, p < 0.001; middle cerebral artery 98.4 ± 3 compared with 56.1 ± 3.7%, respectively, p < 0.001; and anterior cerebral artery 89.2 ± 8.5 compared with 55.8 ± 6.3%, respectively, p < 0.05).

Conclusions. The controlled release of DETA/NO is effective in preventing delayed cerebral vasospasm in an SAH model in nonhuman primates. The death of one animal in the treatment group indicates that the present dosage is at the threshold between therapeutic efficacy and toxicity.

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Roberto C. Heros