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  • Author or Editor: Ryszard M. Pluta x
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Ryszard M. Pluta, Alois Zauner, Jay K. Morgan, Karin M. Muraszko and Edward H. Oldfield

✓ Although proliferative arteriopathy has been postulated to play a role in the etiology of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), histological and morphological studies examining cerebral vasospasm have produced conflicting results. To help settle this controversy, the authors used an in vivo label of cell division, bromodeoxycytidine, to assess cell proliferation in a primate model of SAH.

Fifteen cynomolgus monkeys received a clot of either whole blood (11 animals) or red blood cells (four animals) placed around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). On the day of surgery continuous intravenous infusion of bromodeoxycytidine was begun and continued until the animal was sacrificed immediately after arteriography on Day 7, 12, or 27 following surgery. Sections from the right and left MCA's were stained with a monoclonal antibody against bromodeoxcytidine, and labeled cells were counted.

Arteriographic evidence of vasospasm occurred in nine monkeys on Day 7. On Day 12 and Day 27 no monkeys had persistent vasospasm. Placement of subarachnoid clot around the right MCA increased proliferative activity across all layers of the arterial wall. Most of the labeled cells were in the adventitia and the endothelium. Although there were more dividing cells in all layers of the right MCA than the left MCA (p < 0.01), the number of stained cells per section was limited (range 0.1 to 21.2, mean 8) and the occurrence of vasospasm was not associated with the number of dividing cells in the right MCA on Day 7, 12, 27, or for all days combined (p > 0.6).

Cerebral vasospasm after SAH was not associated with the extent of proliferation of cells in the vessel wall, nor could the intensity of the limited proliferative changes have been responsible for narrowing of the vessel diameter.

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Ryszard M. Pluta, Anna Deka-Starosta, Alois Zauner, Jay K. Morgan, Karin M. Muraszko and Edward H. Oldfield

✓ The cause of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unknown. Recently, an association between the potent vasoconstricting peptide, neuropeptide Y, and delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH has been postulated. This was based on the findings of increased neuropeptide Y levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma after SAH in animals and humans. For this study, the primate model of SAH was used to assess the possible role of neuropeptide Y in delayed vasospasm after SAH. Fifteen cynomolgus monkeys underwent placement of a clot of either whole blood or red blood cells in the subarachnoid space around the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Sequential arteriography for assessment of MCA diameter and sampling of blood and CSF for neuropeptide Y were performed: before SAH (Day 0); 7 days after SAH, when signs of delayed cerebral vasospasm peak in this model and in humans; 12 days after SAH; and 28 days after SAH.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage did not evoke changes in CSF or plasma levels of neuropeptide Y. Nine monkeys had arteriographic evidence of vasospasm on Day 7, but no change in neuropeptide Y levels occurred in plasma or CSF. In addition, neuropeptide Y levels did not change, even after resolution of vasospasm on Day 12 or Day 28. Neuropeptide Y levels were substantially higher in CSF than in arterial plasma (p < 0.003 at each interval). No correlation was found between neuropeptide Y levels in CSF and in plasma. These results do not confirm a relationship between neuropeptide Y levels in the CSF or peripheral plasma and delayed cerebral vasospasm in SAH.