A 2-month-old infant presented with an enlarging scalp hemangioma and consumptive coagulopathy. The patient became severely thrombocytopenic despite medical treatment. Transarterial embolization with Onyx was performed with significant reduction in the size of the tumor and complete resolution of the thrombocytopenia within 12 hours. Onyx embolization appears to be an excellent treatment option for hemangiomas presenting with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome that are unresponsive to standard medical therapy.
Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Hamad Farhat, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Roham Moftakhar and Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan
Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Hamad Farhat, Roham Moftakhar, Mohamed Samy Elhammady and Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan
Endovascular obliteration of wide-necked aneurysms may be precluded by the inability to navigate across the aneurysm neck. The authors present a technique in which a Hyperform balloon is inflated within the aneurysm and used as a contact surface to “bounce” the remodeling balloon across the aneurysm neck. They have successfully used this technique in 3 patients to efficiently overcome vessel tortuosity, aneurysmal dead space, and balloon prolapse, allowing for obliteration of large, wide-necked aneurysms.
Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan, Roham Moftakhar, Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Björn Herman and Hamad Farhat
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are vascular tumors that may make resection difficult and potentially dangerous. Preoperative embolization is frequently used to decrease surgical morbidity and blood loss. Embolization has typically been performed via a transarterial route using a variety of embolic materials. The authors present a case in which endoscopic assistance was used for direct transnasal tumor puncture and intratumoral embolization using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. In this case there was excellent infiltration of the parenchymal vasculature with complete angiographic obliteration. There were no complications related to the embolization. The tumor was resected with minimal blood loss. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous reports of this novel direct intratumoral embolization technique using endoscopic guidance.
Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Hamad Farhat, Roham Moftakhar and Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan
The authors conducted a study to determine the safety and efficacy of embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx.
They prospectively collected data in all patients with CCFs who underwent Onyx-based embolization at their institution over a 3-year period. The type of fistula, route of embolization, viscosity of Onyx, additional use of coils, extent of embolization, procedural complications, and clinical follow-up were recorded.
A total of 12 patients (5 men and 7 women who were age 24–88 years) underwent embolization in which Onyx was used. There were 1 Barrow Type A, 1 Type B, 3 Type C, and 7 Type D fistulas. Embolization was performed via a transvenous route in 8 cases and a transarterial route in 4 cases. Onyx 34 was used in all but 2 cases: a direct Type A fistula embolized with Onyx 500 and an indirect Type C fistula embolized with Onyx 18. Adjuvant embolization with framing coils was performed in 7 cases. All procedures were completed in a single session. Immediate fistula obliteration was achieved in all cases. Clinical resolution of presenting symptoms occurred in 100% of the patients by 2 months. Neurological complications occurred in 3 patients. One patient developed a complete cranial nerve (CN) VII palsy that has not resolved. Two patients developed transient neuropathies—1 a Horner syndrome and partial CN VI palsy, and 1 a complete CN III and partial CN V palsy. Radiographic follow-up (mean 16 months, range 4–35 months) was available in 6 patients with complete resolution of the lesion in all.
Onyx is a liquid embolic agent that is effective in the treatment of CCFs but not without hazards. Postembolization cavernous sinus thrombosis and swelling may result in transient compressive cranial neuropathies. The inherent gradual polymerization properties of Onyx allow for casting of the cavernous sinus but may potentially result in deep penetration within arterial collaterals that can cause CN ischemia/infarction. Although not proven, the angiotoxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide may also play a role in postembolization CN deficits.
Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Ramsey Ashour, Hamad Farhat, Roham Moftakhar, Baruch B. Lieber and Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan
The authors assessed the safety and efficacy of embolization of head, neck, and spinal tumors with Onyx and determined the correlation between tumor embolization and intraoperative blood loss.
The authors prospectively collected all head, neck, and spinal tumors embolized with Onyx at their institution over a 28-month period. Information on tumor type, location, extent of tumor devascularization, endovascular and surgical complications, and intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL) was evaluated.
Forty-three patients with various head, neck, and spinal lesions underwent vascular tumor embolization with Onyx. Indications for embolization included uncontrolled tumor bleeding in 8 cases, elective preoperative devascularization in 34, and tumor-induced consumptive thrombocytopenia in 1 case. Embolization was performed via direct tumoral puncture in 14 cases and through the traditional transarterial route in the remaining lesions. Embolization was successful in ending uncontrolled tumor bleeding in all 8 cases and in reversing the consumptive coagulopathy in 1 case. Intraparenchymal penetration of embolic material was possible in all percutaneously embolized tumors and in 4 of the 20 tumors embolized preoperatively via the transarterial route. The mean percentage of devascularization in tumors with intraparenchymal penetration of Onyx was 90.3% compared with 83.7% in tumors without intraparenchymal penetration. The mean EBL with intraparenchymal penetration of Onyx was significantly lower than when there was no intraparenchymal penetration (459 vs 2698 ml; p = 0.0067). There were no neurological complications related to the embolization procedures.
Embolization of vascular tumors with Onyx can be performed safely but may not reach optimal effectiveness in reducing intraoperative EBL if the embolic material does not penetrate the tumor vasculature. In the authors' experience, the best method of intraparenchymal penetration is achieved with direct tumor puncture. Transarterial embolization may not result in tumor penetration, particularly when injected from a long distance through small caliber or slow flow vessels.