✓The authors describe the internal cranial expansion (ICE) procedure, a surgical technique that was used to treat two chronically shunt-treated children who presented with medically and surgically refractory intracranial hypertension despite the presence of functioning cerebrospinal fluid shunt systems. The ICE procedure was used as a means to increase intracranial volume without sacrificing calvarial rigidity. Intracranial volume was increased by 5% in one case and 10% in the other. Both patients have returned to their neurological and functional baselines, and they are free of symptoms related to intracranial hypertension.
Todd C. Hankinson, J Mocco, Brent Kimball, Richard C. E. Anderson and Neil A. Feldstein
Ricardo J. Komotar, J Mocco, Jess E. Jones, Brad E. Zacharia, Tarik Tihan, Neil A. Feldstein and Richard C. E. Anderson
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently defined pediatric brain tumor; PMAs were previously classified within the pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) category. Nevertheless, PMA has different histological features and has been shown to behave more aggressively than PA. These findings indicate that PMA may be a unique entity that is distinct from PA, or it may be an unusual variant. To increase awareness of PMA within the neurosurgical community, the authors review the diagnostic criteria, prognostic implications, and current management of this recently described pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.