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  • Author or Editor: Andres M. Lozano x
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Jean A. Saint-Cyr, Tasnuva Hoque, Luiz C. M. Pereira, Jonathan O. Dostrovsky, William D. Hutchison, David J. Mikulis, Aviva Abosch, Elspeth Sime, Anthony E. Lang and Andres M. Lozano

Object. The authors sought to determine the location of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes that were most effective in treating Parkinson disease (PD).

Methods. Fifty-four DBS electrodes were localized in and adjacent to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) postoperatively by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a series of 29 patients in whom electrodes were implanted for the treatment of medically refractory PD, and for whom quantitative clinical assessments were available both pre- and postoperatively. A novel MR imaging sequence was developed that optimized visualization of the STN. The coordinates of the tips of these electrodes were calculated three dimensionally and the results were normalized and corrected for individual differences by using intraoperative neurophysiological data (mean 5.13 mm caudal to the midcommissural point [MCP], 8.46 mm inferior to the anterior commissure—posterior commissure [AC—PC], and 10.2 mm lateral to the midline).

Despite reported concerns about distortion on the MR image, reconstructions provided consistent data for the localization of electrodes. The neurosurgical procedures used, which were guided by combined neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods, resulted in the consistent placement of DBS electrodes in the subthalamus and mesencephalon such that the electrode contacts passed through the STN and dorsally adjacent fields of Forel (FF) and zona incerta (ZI). The mean location of the clinically effective contacts was in the anterodorsal STN (mean 1.62 mm posterior to the MCP, 2.47 mm inferior to the AC—PC, and 11.72 mm lateral to the midline). Clinically effective stimulation was most commonly directed at the anterodorsal STN, with the current spreading into the dorsally adjacent FF and ZI.

Conclusions. The anatomical localization of clinically effective electrode contacts provided in this study yields useful information for the postoperative programming of DBS electrodes.

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Ali R. Rezai, Andres M. Lozano, Adrian P. Crawley, Michael L. G. Joy, Karen D. Davis, Chun L. Kwan, Jonathan O. Dostrovsky, Ronald R. Tasker and David J. Mikulis

✓ The utility of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in patients with implanted thalamic electrodes has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to establish the safety of performing fMR imaging in patients with thalamic deep brain stimulators and to determine the value of fMR imaging in detecting cortical and subcortical activity during stimulation.

Functional MR imaging was performed in three patients suffering from chronic pain and two patients with essential tremor. Two of the three patients with pain had undergone electrode implantation in the thalamic sensory ventralis caudalis (Vc) nucleus and the other had undergone electrode implantation in both the Vc and the periventricular gray (PVG) matter. Patients with tremor underwent electrode implantation in the ventralis intermedius (Vim) nucleus. Functional MR imaging was performed during stimulation by using a pulse generator connected to a transcutaneous extension lead. Clinically, Vc stimulation evoked paresthesias in the contralateral body, PVG stimulation evoked a sensation of diffuse internal body warmth, and Vim stimulation caused tremor arrest.

Functional images were acquired using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system. The Vc stimulation at intensities provoking paresthesias resulted in activation of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Stimulation at subthreshold intensities failed to activate the SI. Additional stimulation-coupled activation was observed in the thalamus, the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and the insula. In contrast, stimulation of the PVG electrode did not evoke paresthesias or activate the SI, but resulted in medial thalamic and cingulate cortex activation. Stimulation in the Vim resulted in thalamic, basal ganglia, and SI activation.

An evaluation of the safety of the procedure indicated that significant current could be induced within the electrode if a faulty connecting cable (defective insulation) came in contact with the patient. Simple precautions, such as inspection of wires for fraying and prevention of their contact with the patient, enabled the procedure to be conducted safely. Clinical safety was further corroborated by performing 86 MR studies in patients in whom electrodes had been implanted with no adverse clinical effects.

This is the first report of the use of fMR imaging during stimulation with implanted thalamic electrodes. The authors' findings demonstrate that fMR imaging can safely detect the activation of cortical and subcortical neuronal pathways during stimulation and that stimulation does not interfere with imaging. This approach offers great potential for understanding the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation and those underlying pain and tremor generation.

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Ali R. Rezai, Andres M. Lozano, Adrian P. Crawley, Michael L. G. Joy, Karen D. Davis, Chun L. Kwan, Jonathan O. Dostrovsky, Ronald R. Tasker and David J. Mikulis

The utility of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in patients with implanted thalamic electrodes has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to establish the safety of performing fMR imaging in patients with thalamic deep brain stimulators and to determine the value of fMR imaging in detecting cortical and subcortical activity during stimulation.

Functional MR imaging was performed in three patients suffering from chronic pain and two patients with essential tremor. Two of the three patients with pain had undergone electrode implantation in the thalamic sensory ventralis caudalis (Vc) nucleus and the other had undergone electrode implantation in both the Vc and the periventricular gray (PVG) matter. Patients with tremor underwent electrode implantation in the ventralis intermedius (Vim) nucleus. Functional MR imaging was performed during stimulation by using a pulse generator connected to a transcutaneous extension lead. Clinically, Vc stimulation evoked paresthesias in the contralateral body, PVG stimulation evoked a sensation of diffuse internal body warmth, and Vim stimulation caused tremor arrest.

Functional images were acquired using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system. The Vc stimulation at intensities provoking paresthesias resulted in activation of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Stimulation at subthreshold intensities failed to activate the SI. Additional stimulation-coupled activation was observed in the thalamus, the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and the insula. In contrast, stimulation of the PVG electrode did not evoke paresthesias or activate the SI, but resulted in medial thalamic and cingulate cortex activation. Stimulation in the Vim resulted in thalamic, basal ganglia, and SI activation.

An evaluation of the safety of the procedure indicated that significant current could be induced within the electrode if a faulty connecting cable (defective insulation) came in contact with the patient. Simple precautions, such as inspection of wires for fraying and prevention of their contact with the patient, enabled the procedure to be conducted safely. Clinical safety was further corroborated by performing 86 MR studies in patients in whom electrodes had been implanted with no adverse clinical effects.

This is the first report of the use of fMR imaging during stimulation with implanted thalamic electrodes. The authors' findings demonstrate that fMR imaging can safely detect the activation of cortical and subcortical neuronal pathways during stimulation and that stimulation does not interfere with imaging. This approach offers great potential for understanding the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation and those underlying pain and tremor generation.

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Francesco Sammartino, Vibhor Krishna, Tejas Sankar, Jason Fisico, Suneil K. Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Walter Kucharczyk, David J. Mikulis, Adrian Crawley and Andres M. Lozano

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of 3-T MRI in patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems.

METHODS

This study was performed in 2 phases. In an initial phantom study, a Lucite phantom filled with tissue-mimicking gel was assembled. The system was equipped with a single DBS electrode connected to an internal pulse generator. The tip of the electrode was coupled to a fiber optic thermometer with a temperature resolution of 0.1°C. Both anatomical (T1- and T2-weighted) and functional MRI sequences were tested. A temperature change within 2°C from baseline was considered safe. After findings from the phantom study suggested safety, 10 patients with implanted DBS systems targeting various brain areas provided informed consent and underwent 3-T MRI using the same imaging sequences. Detailed neurological evaluations and internal pulse generator interrogations were performed before and after imaging.

RESULTS

During phantom testing, the maximum temperature increase was registered using the T2-weighted sequence. The maximal temperature changes at the tip of the DBS electrode were < 1°C for all sequences tested. In all patients, adequate images were obtained with structural imaging, although a significant artifact from lead connectors interfered with functional imaging quality. No heating, warmth, or adverse neurological effects were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study to assess the clinical safety of 3-T MRI in patients with a fully implanted DBS system (electrodes, extensions, and pulse generator). It provided preliminary data that will allow further examination and assessment of the safety of 3-T imaging studies in patients with implanted DBS systems. The authors cannot advocate widespread use of this type of imaging in patients with DBS implants until more safety data are obtained.