✓ Carotid body tumors are a rare but potentially difficult surgical entity. Their pathology, physiology, and natural history are reviewed along with surgical results reported in the literature. A surgical approach for removal of these tumors is presented which differs significantly from the recommended techniques in that emphasis is placed on intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow, the selective use of shunts, a tumor-adventitial plane of dissection, preservation of the carotid artery complex, and mobilization of the parotid gland. Thirteen cases using these techniques are reviewed. The mortality rate and the incidence of cerebrovascular sequelae were both 0%. The major morbidity consisted of injury to the lower cranial nerves in five patients (39%) with tumors larger than 5 cm in length.
Fredric B. Meyer, Thoralf M. Sundt Jr. and Bruce W. Pearson
Fredric B. Meyer, David G. Piepgras, Thoralf M. Sundt Jr. and Takehiko Yanagihara
✓ Twenty cases treated with emergency embolectomy for acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery were reviewed. There were 10 males and 10 females, with an average age of 55 years. The left middle cerebral artery was involved in 17 patients and the right in three. Flow was restored in 16 patients (75%). The embolus originated in the heart in seven, the carotid artery in seven, the aorta in three, an aneurysm in one, and an indeterminate source in two. It was technically most difficult to achieve patency with atheromatous emboli from the aorta. Two patients (10%) had an excellent result with no neurological deficit, five (25%) were left with a minimal deficit but were employable, seven (35%) had a fair result but were still independent and employable, four (20%) did poorly, and two (10%) died. Patients with an associated ipsilateral carotid artery occlusion did poorly. Collateral flow, as judged from preoperative angiograms, was the best predictor of outcome.
Fredric B. Meyer, Robert E. Anderson, Tony L. Yaksh and Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
✓ Intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow, and electroencephalograms (EEG's) were recorded in severely and moderately ischemic regions in 10 control and 10 nimodipine-treated rabbits prior to and following major branch occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Preocclusion cortical blood flow was 51 ml/100 gm/min and intracellular brain pH was 7.01 in both the control and the treated animals. After MCA occlusion, the severely ischemic regions in the control group showed initial and 4-hour postocclusion flows of 12.7 and 5.2 ml/100 gm/min with a brain pH of 6.64 and 6.08, respectively. In animals given nimodipine after MCA occlusion, blood flow increased from 10.5 to 18.8 ml/100 gm/min, with an associated elevation in intracellular brain pH from 6.57 to 6.91. Comparable findings were observed in areas of moderate ischemia. Improvements in cortical blood flow, intracellular brain pH, and EEG attenuations produced by nimodipine were all statistically significant. Inspection of the cortex revealed reversal of cortical pallor and small-vessel spasm following treatment with nimodipine. It is hypothesized that nimodipine exerts its effects through reversal of ischemia-induced secondary vasoconstriction, and that this drug may be an important adjunctive treatment for patients with focal cerebral ischemia.
Assessment by intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow, and electroencephalography
Fredric B. Meyer, Robert E. Anderson, Thoralf M. Sundt Jr. and Tony L. Yaksh
✓ Intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow (CBF), and electrocorticograms were recorded in regions of severe and moderate ischemia in 10 control rabbits and 10 rabbits given mannitol, 1 gm/kg, after occlusion of a major branch of the middle cerebral artery. Pooling the data from all 20 animals, preocclusion CBF was 46.4 ±3.6 ml/100 gm/min and intracellular brain pH was 7.01 ± 0.04 (means ± standard error of the means). Although mannitol administration mildly improved CBF in regions of severe ischemia, this increase was not sufficient to prevent metabolic deterioration as assessed by brain pH. However, in regions of moderate ischemia, CBF improved significantly with mannitol and the gradual decline in brain pH observed in control animals was prevented. For example, in the treated moderate ischemia sites 4-hour postocclusion CBF and pH values were 31.8 ml/100 gm/min and 6.89 ± 0.09, respectively, as compared to control values of 14.3 ml/ 100 gm/min and 6.75 ± 0.06. These results suggest that mannitol may be of benefit in stabilizing regions of moderate, but not severe, ischemia after vessel occlusion.
Fredric B. Meyer, Thoralf M. Sundt Jr., Nicolee C. Fode, Michael K. Morgan, Glen S. Forbes and James F. Mellinger
✓ In this study, 24 aneurysms occurring in 23 patients under the age of 18 years (mean 12 years) are analyzed. The male:female ratio was 2.8:1, and the youngest patient was 3 months old. Mycotic lesions and those associated with other vascular malformations were excluded. Forty-two percent of the aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation, and 54% were giant aneurysms. Presenting symptoms included subarachnoid hemorrhage in 13 and mass effect in 11. Several of these aneurysms were documented to rapidly increase in size over a 3-month to 2-year period of observation. All aneurysms were surgically treated: direct clipping was performed in 14; trapping with bypass in four; trapping alone in four; and direct excision with end-to-end anastomosis in two. The postoperative results were excellent in 21 aneurysms (87%), good in two (8%), and poor in one. The pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms is reviewed.