Edward F. Chang, Aaron Clark, Justin S. Smith, Mei-Yin Polley, Susan M. Chang, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Andrew T. Parsa, Michael W. McDermott and Mitchel S. Berger
Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) frequently infiltrate highly functional or “eloquent” brain areas. Given the lack of long-term survival data, the prognostic significance of eloquent brain tumor location and the role of functional mapping during resective surgery in presumed eloquent brain regions are unknown.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 281 cases involving adults who underwent resection of a supratentorial LGG at a brain tumor referral center. Preoperative MR images were evaluated blindly for involvement of eloquent brain areas, including the sensorimotor and language cortices, and specific subcortical structures. For high-risk tumors located in presumed eloquent brain areas, long-term survival estimates were evaluated for patients who underwent intraoperative functional mapping with electrocortical stimulation and for those who did not.
One hundred and seventy-four patients (62%) had high-risk LGGs that were located in presumed eloquent areas. Adjusting for other known prognostic factors, patients with tumors in areas presumed to be eloquent had worse overall and progression-free survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR] 6.1, 95% CI 2.6–14.1; PFS, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.9; Cox proportional hazards). Confirmation of tumor overlapping functional areas during intraoperative mapping was strongly associated with shorter survival (OS, HR 9.6, 95% CI 3.6–25.9). In contrast, when mapping revealed that tumor spared true eloquent areas, patients had significantly longer survival, nearly comparable to patients with tumors that clearly involved only noneloquent areas, as demonstrated by preoperative imaging (OS, HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.0–8.5).
Presumed eloquent location of LGGs is an important but modifiable risk factor predicting disease progression and death. Delineation of true functional and nonfunctional areas by intraoperative mapping in high-risk patients to maximize tumor resection can dramatically improve long-term survival.
S. Andrew Josephson, Alexander M. Papanastassiou, Mitchel S. Berger, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Michael W. McDermott, Joan F. Hilton, Bruce L. Miller and Michael D. Geschwind
Obtaining brain biopsy specimens is often the diagnostic test of last resort for patients with unexplained neurological conditions, particularly those with a rapidly deteriorating neurological course. The goals of this analysis were to determine the diagnostic sensitivity of brain biopsy specimens in these types of patients and retrospectively identify features of these disorders that may have enabled an earlier diagnosis, which may prevent the need for diagnostic brain biopsy procedures in the future.
The authors reviewed the case records of all brain biopsy procedures that had been performed at a single tertiary care institution between January 1993 and April 2002 in 171 patients. Patients with HIV or nonlymphomatous brain tumors were excluded from this analysis because the utility of brain biopsy specimens for these conditions has been determined from previous studies. A subgroup analysis of this cohort was performed in the 64 patients who had comprehensive medical records and a clinical syndrome involving a progressively deteriorating neurological condition of less than 1 year in duration.
The overall sensitivity of brain biopsy procedures for diagnostic purposes in the cohort was 65% (111 of 171 patients). The two most common diagnoses in the subgroup with rapidly deteriorating neurological conditions were primary central nervous system (CNS) B-cell lymphoma in 20.3% (13 patients) and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in 15.6% (10 patients), followed by viral encephalitis in 14.1% (nine patients) and CNS vasculitis in 9.4% (six patients). Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were compared among the diagnostic groups.
These results will help guide the evaluation of patients with neurological conditions that are difficult to diagnose and will provide a foundation for further prospective studies.
Martina Descovich, Penny K. Sneed, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Michael W. McDermott, Cynthia F. Chuang, Igor J. Barani, Jean L. Nakamura and Lijun Ma
The Leksell Gamma Knife and the Accuray CyberKnife systems have been used in the radiosurgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. The 2 techniques use different delivery methods and different treatment parameters. In the past, CyberKnife treatments have been associated with an increased incidence of treatment-related complications, such as facial numbness. The goal of this study was to develop a method for planning a CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia that would reproduce the dosimetric characteristics of a Gamma Knife plan. A comparison between Gamma Knife and CyberKnife treatment plans obtained with this method is presented.
Five patients treated using the Gamma Knife Perfexion Unit were selected for this study. All patients underwent CT cisternography to accurately identify the position of the trigeminal nerve. The Gamma Knife plans used either one 4-mm-diameter collimator or two coincident 4-mm collimators (one open and one with sector blocking) placed at identical isocenter coordinates. A maximum local dose of 80 Gy was prescribed. Critical structures and representative isodose lines were outlined in GammaPlan and exported to the CyberKnife treatment planning platform. CyberKnife treatments were developed using the 5-mm-diameter cone and the trigeminal node set, which provides an effective collimation diameter of 4 mm at the isocenter. The 60-Gy isodose volume imported from GammaPlan was used as the target in the CyberKnife plans. The CyberKnife treatments were optimized to achieve target dose and critical structure sparing similar to the Gamma Knife plans. Isocentric and nonisocentric delivery techniques were investigated. Treatment plans were compared in terms of dosimetric characteristics, delivery, and planning efficiency.
CyberKnife treatments using the 5-mm cone and the trigeminal node set can closely reproduce the dose distribution of Gamma Knife plans. CyberKnife isocentric and nonisocentric plans provide comparable results. The average length of the trigeminal nerve receiving a dose of 60 Gy was 4.5, 4.5, and 4.4 mm for Gamma Knife, nonisocentric CyberKnife, and isocentric CyberKnife, respectively. However, minimizing the dose to the critical structures was more difficult with the CyberKnife and required the use of tuning structures. In addition, the dose falloff away from the target was steeper in Gamma Knife plans, probably due to the larger number of beams (192 beams for Perfexion vs ~ 100 beams for CyberKnife). While the treatment time with the CyberKnife is generally shorter, the planning time is significantly longer.
CyberKnife radiosurgical parameters can be optimized to mimic the dose distribution of Gamma Knife plans. However, Gamma Knife plans result in superior sparing of critical structures (brainstem, temporal lobe, and cranial nerves VII and VIII) and in steeper dose falloff away from the target. The clinical significance of these effects is unknown.
2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010