Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 22 items for :

  • By Author: Marmarou, Anthony x
Clear All
Restricted access

A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats

Part II: Morphological characterization

Montasser A. Abd-Elfattah Foda and Anthony Marmarou

form of brain injury. Materials and Methods Injury Device A simple device was designed to induce blunt trauma to the protected skull of the rat. A cylindrical column of brass weighing 450 gm was allowed to fall through a clear Plexiglas tube onto a small rounded stainless-steel disc fixed to the central portion of the skull vault of the rat. The severity of trauma was adjusted by changing the height of the falling weight. Figure 1 demonstrates the trauma device, the site of the metallic disc on the skull of the rat, and the relation of the rat to the

Restricted access

Katsuji Shima and Anthony Marmarou

cranial preparation for the injury coupling device. During these procedures, gallamine triethiodide (4 mg/kg) was used to maintain muscle relaxation for mechanical ventilation and a reliable end-tidal CO 2 concentration of 4% to 4.5% (arterial pCO 2 between 26 and 32 mm Hg). During the entire experimental period, adequate depth of anesthesia was assessed by observing the blood pressure and heart rate response to paw pinch. A heating pad was used to maintain body temperature at 37° to 39°C. Following these procedures, the animals were placed on a stereotactic frame

Restricted access

Kazuo Yoshida and Anthony Marmarou

attachment of the fluid-percussion trauma device. The craniectomy was closed with Gelfoam and dental cement. One circular 1 H MR spectroscopy surface coil, 20 mm in diameter, was cemented on the left frontoparietal region and another circular coil, 23 mm in diameter, was placed for 31 P spectroscopy on the right side. Core body temperature, measured by a rectal probe, was carefully maintained at 37°C by a thermostatic water-heating blanket. Experimental Protocol After surgical preparation of the animals, control MR spectroscopy measurements of brain lactate and

Restricted access

Panos P. Fatouros and Anthony Marmarou

, 16 have also used CT scanning for in-depth studies of edema propagation. However, the differences in calibration among CT devices as well as the effect of protein acting to increase the number seen on CT scanning and to underestimate edema content detract from the advantages of this method. Thus, with few exceptions in the clinical setting, brain edema visualized by CT scanning remains an important but subjective observation. Fortunately, the introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology and the inherent marked sensitivity of relaxation times to

Restricted access

Michael F. Stiefel and Anthony Marmarou

probe and a heating lamp. Surgical Procedures Following stabilization of blood gases and blood pressure, a midline neck incision was made and all overlying neck muscles were carefully reflected to expose the CCAs. Snare ligatures consisting of No. 3-0 Ethilon were looped around the CCAs. Following snare placement, each animal was placed in a stereotactic frame and ear bars were used to secure its head. A midline scalp incision was made and all overlying tissue was reflected. Five burr holes were made to accommodate the monitoring devices, with the ISEs placed

Restricted access

Bruce J. Andersen, Andreas W. Unterberg, Geoff D. Clarke and Anthony Marmarou

whether or not the derangements seen clinically can be produced by the combined effects of concussive trauma and respiratory depression. Materials and Methods Surgical Preparation Adult cats, each weighing between 2.3 and 3.5 kg, were anesthetized with intravenous α -chloralose (40 mg/kg initially then 20 mg/kg after 8 hours) while being mechanically ventilated. The superior and left temporoparietal skull was exposed, and a 1-cm left lateral craniectomy was performed for attachment of the fluid-percussion coupling device. 28 A thoracotomy was performed for

Restricted access

Andreas W. Unterberg, Bruce J. Andersen, Geoff D. Clarke and Anthony Marmarou

craniectomy was made (diameter 1 cm) for the attachment of the head-injury coupling device. A second craniectomy was made above the sagittal sinus 1.5 cm posterior to the bregma. Under magnification, a polyethylene catheter (inner diameter 0.58 mm, outer diameter 0.96 mm) was inserted into the sinus for withdrawal of cerebrovenous blood. Both the lateral and superior craniectomies were closed with Gelfoam and acrylic cement. Two MR spectroscopy surface coils (23 × 19 mm) tuned to obtain 31 P spectra were then cemented in place above the left lateral craniectomy and above

Restricted access

Gerrit J. Bouma, J. Paul Muizelaar, Kuniaki Bandoh and Anthony Marmarou

, et al : The effect of blood pressure and PaCO 2 upon bulk compliance (PVI) , in Shulman K , Marmarou A , Miller JD , et al (eds): Intracranial Pressure IV. Berlin : Springer-Verlag , 1980 , pp 163 – 166 Takagi H, Walstra G, Marmarou A, et al: The effect of blood pressure and PaCO 2 upon bulk compliance (PVI), in Shulman K, Marmarou A, Miller JD, et al (eds): Intracranial Pressure IV. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1980, pp 163–166 * Novo-10a CBF measuring device manufactured by Novo Diagnostic Systems

Restricted access

Ralf Burger, Martin Bendszus, Giles Hamilton Vince, Klaus Roosen and Anthony Marmarou

nasion to the occiput. The epidural balloon device and the monitoring probes were placed according to the schematic drawing shown in Fig. 1 . Bone discs with openings of the dura mater that were created during trephination were sealed with dental cement before baseline measurements were obtained. Fig. 1. Schematic drawing showing the axial view of a rat skull after trephinations for probe positioning and placement of the balloon expansion device and the EEG electrodes (A and B denote active electrodes referred to the occiput [Oz], which is grounded

Restricted access

Pál Barzó, Anthony Marmarou, Panos Fatouros, Koji Hayasaki and Frank Corwin

(Biospec; Bruker Instruments, Billerica, MA) equipped with a 12-cm inner diameter actively shielded gradient insert with a G max of 25 G/cm. Radiofrequency excitation and reception were performed using a 7-cm inner diameter quadrature “birdcage” design resonator. To minimize any macroscopic motion artifacts, the rat's head was rigidly supported with a specially designed stereotactic device, including both ear and mouth supports mounted inside the cylinder. Apparent Diffusion Constant Measurements. Apparent diffusion constant measurements were obtained using a two