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Asim Mahmood, Dunyue Lu, Changsheng Qu, Anton Goussev and Michael Chopp

suspended in saline were injected into rats via the tail vein. Animal Model and Injection of BMSCs We used a controlled cortical impact rat model that has previously been described. 6 Female Wistar rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg/body weight). The animals’ rectal temperature was controlled at 37°C by using a feedback-regulated water-heating pad. A controlled cortical impact device was used to create severe brain injury. 6 The rats were placed in a stereotactic frame. Two 10-mm-diameter craniotomies were

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Asim Mahmood, Hongtao Wu, Changsheng Qu, Ye Xiong and Michael Chopp

controlled cortical injury model of TBI in rats. 12 , 42 Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg/body weight). A controlled cortical injury device was used to induce injury. The rats were placed in a stereotactic frame. Two 10-mm-diameter craniotomies were performed adjacent to the central suture, midway between the lambda and bregma. The second craniotomy allowed for the movement of cortical tissue laterally. The dura mater was kept intact over the cortex. Injury was induced by delivering a blow to the left

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Asim Mahmood, Dunyue Lu, Yi Li, Jae Li Chen and Michael Chopp

intraperitoneal administration of chloral hydrate (35 mg/100 g body weight). The animals' rectal temperatures were maintained at 37°C by using a feedback-regulated water heating pad. A controlled cortical impact device was used to induce the injury. 17 First, each rat was placed in a stereotactic frame. Two craniotomies, 10 mm in diameter, were performed adjacent to the central suture, midway between the lambda and bregma. The second craniotomy allows for movement of cortical tissue laterally. 55 The dura mater was kept intact over the cortex. Injury was induced by impacting

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Dunyue Lu, Asim Mahmood, Ruilan Zhang, Yi Li and Michael Chopp

Henry Ford Hospital. Animal Model A controlled cortical impact model of TBI in rats was used in this study. 23, 57 Male Wistar rats weighing 300 to 400 g were anesthetized with 350 mg/kg body weight chloral hydrate delivered intraperitoneally. The animals' rectal temperature was controlled at 37°C with a feedback-regulated, water-filled heating pad. A controlled cortical impact device was used to induce the injury in the following manner: rats were placed in a stereotactic frame, then two 10-mm-diameter craniotomies were performed adjacent to the central suture

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Dunyue Lu, Asim Mahmood, Changsheng Qu, Anton Goussev, Mei Lu and Michael Chopp

, male Wistar rats weighing 300 to 400 g were intraperitoneally anesthetized using chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg body weight). Each rat's rectal temperature was maintained at 37°C with a feedback-regulated water heating pad. A CCI device was used to induce injury. The rats were placed in a stereotactic frame, and two 10-mm-diameter craniotomies were performed adjacent to the central suture, midway between the lambda and the bregma. The second craniotomy allowed for lateral movement of cortical tissue. The dura mater was kept intact over the cortex. Injury was induced by

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Yuling Meng, Ye Xiong, Asim Mahmood, Yanlu Zhang, Changsheng Qu and Michael Chopp

Ford Health System. Traumatic Brain Injury Model A CCI model of TBI in the rat was used for the present study. 16 , 35 Young adult male Wistar rats (313.4 ± 8.9 g) were anesthetized intraperitoneally with chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg body weight). Rectal temperature was maintained at 37°C using a feedback-regulated water-heating pad. A CCI device was used to induce injury. Rats were placed in a stereotactic frame. Two 10-mm-diameter craniotomies were performed adjacent to the central suture, midway between lambda and bregma. The second craniotomy allowed for

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Yanlu Zhang, Michael Chopp, Yuling Meng, Mark Katakowski, Hongqi Xin, Asim Mahmood and Ye Xiong

was cut into 2-mm-thick coronal blocks for a total of 7 blocks (from bregma 5.2 mm to bregma −8.8 mm) per animal. 71 The tissues were embedded in paraffin and a series of 6-μm-thick slides were cut. For lesion volume measurement, one 6-μm-thick section from each of 7 coronal blocks was traced by a microcomputer imaging device (MCID, Imaging Research), as described previously. 11 The volumes of the ipsilateral and contralateral cortices were computed by integrating the area of each cortex measured at each coronal level and the distance between 2 sections. The

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Asim Mahmood, Hongtao Wu, Changsheng Qu, Selina Mahmood, Ye Xiong, David L. Kaplan and Michael Chopp

). A controlled cortical impact device was used to induce injury. 20 , 51 Rats were placed in a stereotactic frame, and two 10-mm-diameter craniotomies were performed adjacent to the central suture, midway between lambda and bregma. The second craniotomy allowed for the lateral movement of brain tissue. 20 , 51 The dura mater was not opened, and injury was induced by striking the left cortex covered with intact dura with a 6-mm-diameter tip pneumatic piston at a rate of 4 m/sec and 2.5 mm of compression. Velocity was measured using a linear velocity displacement

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Asim Mahmood, Dunyue Lu, Changsheng Qu, Anton Goussev, Zheng Gang Zhang, Chang Lu and Michael Chopp

Wistar rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate administered intraperitoneally. Rectal temperature was controlled at 37°C with a feedback-regulated water-heating pad. A controlled cortical impact device was used to induce the injury, as has been described previously. Briefly, the rats were placed in a stereotactic frame, and two 10-mm–diameter craniotomies were performed adjacent to the central suture, midway between lambda and bregma. The contralateral craniotomy allowed for movement of cortical tissue laterally. 21 The dura mater was kept intact over the

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Ye Xiong, Yanlu Zhang, Asim Mahmood, Yuling Meng, Zheng Gang Zhang, Daniel C. Morris and Michael Chopp

.4). Their brains were removed and postfixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 2 days at room temperature. The brain tissue was cut into 7 equally spaced 1-mm coronal blocks and processed for paraffin sectioning. A series of adjacent 6-μm–thick sections were cut from each block in the coronal plane and stained with H & E. For lesion volume measurement, the 7 brain sections were traced by a microcomputer imaging device (Imaging Research, Inc.), as previously described. 8 The indirect lesion area was calculated (the intact area of the ipsilateral hemisphere is subtracted from the