Progressive postnatal pansynostosis (PPP) is a rare form of craniosynostosis that is characterized by a normal head shape, insidious decrease in percentile head circumference, and high rates of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This investigation describes the clinical, radiographic, and genetic features of this entity.
The authors’ craniofacial database for the period 1997–2013 was retrospectively culled to identify patients who had a normal or near-normal head shape and CT-confirmed multiple-suture synostosis. Patients with kleeblatt-schädel or previous craniofacial surgery were excluded. All demographic information was collected and analyzed.
Seventeen patients fit the inclusion criteria. Nine patients had a syndromic diagnosis: Crouzon syndrome (n = 4), Pfeiffer syndrome (n = 2), Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (n = 1), Apert syndrome (n = 1), and achondroplasia (n = 1). With the exception of 3 patients with mild turricephaly, all patients had a relatively normal head shape. Patients were diagnosed at an average age of 62.9 months. Nearly all patients had some combination of clinical, radiographic, or ophthalmological evidence of increased ICP.
PPP is insidious; diagnosis is typically delayed because the clinical signs are subtle and appear gradually. All normocephalic infants or children with a known or suspected craniosynostotic disorder should be carefully monitored; any decrease in percentile head circumference or signs/symptoms of increased ICP should prompt CT evaluation.