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Shigeki Ono, Taro Komuro and R. Loch Macdonald

22 : 1075 – 1099 , 1997 Everse J, Hsia N: The toxicities of native and modified hemoglobins. Free Radic Biol Med 22: 1075–1099, 1997 13. Fox JL : Intracranial vasospasm: a study with iron compounds. Surg Neurol 11 : 363 – 368 , 1979 Fox JL: Intracranial vasospasm: a study with iron compounds. Surg Neurol 11: 363–368, 1979 14. Graham FL , Prevec L : Manipulation of adenoviral vectors , in Murray EJ (ed): Molecular Biology: Gene Transfer and Expression Protocols. Clifton, NJ

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Aaron S. Dumont, Michael Chow and Neal F. Kassell

the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its development and maintenance is becoming increasingly realized with the application of molecular biology techniques. This is but one example of a broad and emerging trend propagating through the ranks of neurosurgeons at the declaration and dawning of a new era of cellular and molecular neurosurgery. The use of gene therapy falls equally within the premises and vision of this evolving subspecialty in neurosurgery. Although still in a stage of relative infancy (the first federally approved human gene therapy

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Elena Nikitina, Ayako Kawashima, Masataka Takahashi, Zhen-Du Zhang, Xueyuan Shang, Jinglu Ai and R. Loch Macdonald

micromanifold was located within 200 μm of the cell, allowing exchange of the solution bathing it within a few seconds. Antagonists were nimodipine, mibefradil, SNX-482, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and ω-agatoxin IVA (Sigma-Aldrich). Experiments were performed at 24°C. Molecular Biology Basilar arteries were minced into small pieces on ice and homogenized in liquid N 2 in buffer containing protease inhibitors (Sigma) and (in mmol/L): 50 HEPES, 150 NaCl, 10% glycerol, 1% Triton X-100, and 1 EDTA, pH 7.9. Protein was quantified by spectrophotometry (at 562 nm) with Micro BCA

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Joshua D. Bell, Theresa Currier Thomas, Elliot Lass, Jinglu Ai, Hoyee Wan, Jonathan Lifshitz, Andrew J. Baker and R. Loch Macdonald

analysis demonstrated a marked relationship between surface GluR2 expression and distance from microthrombi ( upper graph , R 2 = 0.6985). There is no correlation between distance from clean vessels and GluR2 expression ( lower graph , R 2 = 0.0997). Discussion The relationship between microthrombi and clinical deficits following aneurysmal SAH is currently unknown. This study is among the first to describe a direct relationship between microthrombosis and changes to the molecular biology of nearby neurons, which might contribute to the cognitive impairments