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Ethan Cottrill, Zach Pennington, A. Karim Ahmed, Daniel Lubelski, Matthew L. Goodwin, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Erick M. Westbroek, Nicholas Theodore, Timothy Witham, and Daniel Sciubba

the effects of electrical stimulation therapies on spinal fusion, none to date have systematically evaluated both the preclinical and clinical literature of all 3 available technologies. In this article, we perform such a review as a means of compiling the current evidence and validating the translatability of results achieved using these technologies in animal models. We set out to evaluate the available English-language literature for all 3 technologies, asking of each one: 1) To what degree does the technology improve bony fusion in animal models? 2) To what

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Mark N. Hadley

procedures, yet will probably be interpreted as “proof” that there is no increased risk of urological complications with its use, when indeed the study is underpowered to address that important point. More, and more sensitive and specific work needs to be performed in the study of the merits and potential limitations of these biologically active, genetically engineered BMPs before we can scientifically state that they pose no increased risk to the patients we treat. Disclosure Dr. Hadley designed, performed, and published an animal model safety study of rhBMP-7 in

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Mohammed F. Shamji Toronto Western Hospital 4 2013 34 4 Functional Imaging A5 A6 Copyright held by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. You may not sell, republish, or systematically distribute any published materials without written permission from JNSPG. 2013 Introduction: Intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation causes radiculopathy by mechanical compression and biochemical irritation of nearby neural structures. Animal models of radiculopathy describe demyelination, slowed nerve conduction, and heightened pain sensitivity

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protect against dioxin action in vivo, with the ultimate goal of identifying a therapeutic approach to improve bone healing in smokers. Neurosurg Focus Neurosurgical Focus FOC 1092-0684 American Association of Neurological Surgeons 2015.4.FOC-LSRSABSTRACTS Abstract Paper # 25. Large Animal Model Development for Use in Testing a Novel Cell Therapy for Degenerative Disc Disease Lara I. Silverman , PhD , Antwain Howard , DVM , and Kevin Foley , MD Semmes-Murphey Neurologic Institute 4 2015 38

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corticosteroids. Conclusion Pre-clinical animal models are essential in demonstrating the safety and efficacy of spinal biologics. Utilizing historical controls, we established the expected arthrodesis rates in the rabbit posterolateral spinal arthrodesis model with varying experimental conditions. Neurosurg Focus Neurosurgical Focus FOC 1092-0684 American Association of Neurological Surgeons 2013.1.FOC-LSRSABSTRACTS Poster Abstract Poster 15. The Impact Of Reduction Of Pain Following Lumbar Spine Surgery: The Relationship Between

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the non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) or “mongrel” dog that retains its population of notochordal cells (unlike humans) does not develop DDD if at all, until much later in life. Here we demonstrate that NCCM is capable of regenerating the degenerative disc in a pre-clinical animal model of DDD. Materials/Methods: We used a 26-gauge needle and image guidance to develop DDD in a pre-clinical rodent model and characterized the degenerative cascade from healthy through 10-weeks by analyzing the IVD NPs until 6-weeks post injury. Meanwhile we generated notochordal cell

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, with >90% of cells confirmed to have EC identity on flow cytometry (CD45-CD31+). These cells were also significantly enriched for EC-related genes such as Cdh5, Icam2, Nos3 and Pecam1. Microarray results will provide a list of genes that are significantly upregulated or downregulated in BECs after SAH, requiring further validation studies. Conclusion: BBB disruption is greater at 24h than at 48h in an experimental SAH model. This study is the first to provide whole genome expression profiling of freshly-isolated BECs derived from an SAH animal model. Thereby

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intervertebral disc (IVD) in animal models induces structural damage and leads to IVD degeneration over time. Prior rodent IVD degeneration models have involved injury to multiple IVDs, which confounds the mechanism of pain generation. This study identifies a behavioral and pain-related sensitivity phenotype after puncture of one lumbar IVD. Materials/Methods: Baseline functional assessments including static weight-bearing, gait analysis, site-specific algesia, and open field testing were done for Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36, 18 weeks old) the day before lumbar IVD