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Eric W. Sankey, C. Rory Goodwin, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Benjamin D. Elder, Jamie Hoffberger, Jennifer Lu, Ari M. Blitz and Daniele Rigamonti


Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus; however, the success of ETV in patients who have previously undergone shunt placement remains unclear. The present study analyzed 103 adult patients with aqueductal stenosis who underwent ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus and evaluated the effect of previous shunt placement on post-ETV outcomes.


This study was a retrospective review of 151 consecutive patients who were treated between 2007 and 2013 with ETV for hydrocephalus. One hundred three (68.2%) patients with aqueductal stenosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus were included in the analysis. Postoperative ETV patency and aqueductal and cisternal flow were assessed by high-resolution, gradient-echo MRI. Post-ETV Mini-Mental State Examination, Timed Up and Go, and Tinetti scores were compared with preoperative values. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed comparing the post-ETV outcomes in patients who underwent a primary (no previous shunt) ETV (n = 64) versus secondary (previous shunt) ETV (n = 39).


The majority of patients showed significant improvement in symptoms after ETV; however, no significant differences were seen in any of the quantitative tests performed during follow-up. Symptom recurrence occurred in 29 (28.2%) patients after ETV, after a median of 3.0 (interquartile range 0.8–8.0) months post-ETV failure. Twenty-seven (26.2%) patients required surgical revision after their initial ETV. Patients who received a secondary ETV had higher rates of symptom recurrence (p = 0.003) and surgical revision (p = 0.003), particularly in regard to additional shunt placement/revision post-ETV (p = 0.005). These differences remained significant after multivariate analysis for both symptom recurrence (p = 0.030) and surgical revision (p = 0.043).


Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis exhibit symptomatic improvement after ETV, with a relatively low failure rate. Patients with a primary history of shunt placement who undergo ETV as a secondary intervention are at increased risk of symptom recurrence and need for surgical revision post-ETV.

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Sharif Vakili, Dane Moran, Alice Hung, Benjamin D. Elder, Lee Jeon, Hugo Fialho, Eric W. Sankey, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, C. Rory Goodwin, Jennifer Lu, Jamie Robison and Daniele Rigamonti


A growing body of evidence suggests that longer durations of preoperative symptoms may correlate with worse postoperative outcomes following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion for treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study is to determine whether the duration of preoperative symptoms alters postoperative outcomes in patients treated for iNPH.


The authors conducted a retrospective review of 393 cases of iNPH involving patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting. The duration of symptoms prior to the operative intervention was recorded. The following outcome variables were assessed at baseline, 6 months postoperatively, and at last follow-up: gait performance, urinary continence, and cognition.


The patients' median age at shunt placement was 74 years. Increased symptom duration was significantly associated with worse gait outcomes (relative risk (RR) 1.055 per year of symptoms, p = 0.037), and an overall absence of improvement in any of the classic triad symptomology (RR 1.053 per year of symptoms, p = 0.033) at 6 months postoperatively. Additionally, there were trends toward significance for symptom duration increasing the risk of having no 6-month postoperative improvement in urinary incontinence (RR 1.049 per year of symptoms, p = 0.069) or cognitive symptoms (RR 1.051 per year of symptoms, p = 0.069). However, no statistically significant differences were noted in these outcomes at last follow-up (median 31 months). Age stratification by decade revealed that prolonging symptom duration was significantly associated with lower Mini-Mental Status Examination scores in patients aged 60–70 years, and lack of cognitive improvement in patients aged 70–80 years.


Patients with iNPH with longer duration of preoperative symptoms may not receive the same short-term benefits of surgical intervention as patients with shorter duration of preoperative symptoms. However, with longer follow-up, the patients generally reached the same end point. Therefore, when managing patients with iNPH, it may take longer to see the benefits of CSF shunting when patients present with a longer duration of preoperative symptoms.