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James K. Liu

Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations account for approximately 5% of all intraspinal lesions. These lesions can present with either acute neurological compromise secondary to hemorrhage inside the spinal cord, or with chronic progressive myelopathy due to repeated microhemorrhages. Surgical resection of spinal cord cavernous malformations remains the definitive treatment strategy for symptomatic lesions. Because of the intimate relationship with surrounding eloquent neural tissue, these lesions can be technically challenging to remove with a significant risk for morbidity. In this operative video, the author demonstrates an illustrative step-by-step technique for microsurgical resection of a large intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformation at C4–5 causing progressive myelopathy. Complete resection was achieved without neurologic compromise. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical approach, intradural cavernoma removal, and spinal stabilization are illustrated.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/3FUjGSyrKO0.

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James K. Liu

Ventrally based meningiomas at the craniovertebral junction can be challenging tumors to remove because of their deep location anterior to the lower brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord, and close association with complex neurovascular structures. The extreme lateral transcondylar approach provides excellent access and exposure to anterior and anterolateral intradural tumors involving the region of the craniovertebral junction, including the lower third of the clivus, the foramen magnum, and the upper cervical spine. This approach allows safe access for removal of these difficult tumors without any neural retraction. In this operative video manuscript, the author demonstrates an illustrative step-by-step technique for microsurgical resection of a ventrally based meningioma extending from the foramen magnum to C-2 using the extreme lateral transcondylar approach. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical approach, intradural tumor removal, and cranial base reconstruction, are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/4uvPpEtEShU.

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James K. Liu

The interhemispheric transcallosal approach is a versatile approach to access intraventricular tumors of the lateral and third ventricles. The advantages of using a transcallosal approach over a classical transcortical approach include a direct midline orientation with symmetrical access to both lateral ventricles and both walls of the third ventricle. In addition, violation of the cerebral cortex and the risk of postoperative seizures can be avoided. Central neurocytomas are rare benign tumors that represent approximately 0.1 to 0.5% of all primary brain tumors. They are typically located in the lateral ventricles and tend to present clinically with hydrocephalus. Currently, surgical removal with a gross-total resection is the treatment of choice. In this operative video manuscript, the author demonstrates an illustrative step-by-step technique for microsurgical resection of a large central neurocytoma involving both lateral ventricles in a patient with hydrocephalus using the interhemispheric transcallosal approach. A complete removal was performed without the need for permanent shunting. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical approach, intraventricular tumor removal, and closure are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/KzC8QYsTKeg.

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James K. Liu

The angle of the straight sinus and tentorium cerebelli can often influence the choice of surgical approach to the pineal region. The supracerebellar infratentorial approach can be technically challenging and a relative contraindication in cases where the angle of the straight sinus and tentorium is very steep. Similarly, an occipital transtentorial approach, which uses a low occipital craniotomy at the junction of the superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus, may not provide the best trajectory to the pineal region in patients with a steep tentorium. In addition, this approach often necessitates retraction on the occipital lobe to access the tentorial incisura and pineal region, which can increase the risk of visual compromise. In this operative video, the author demonstrates an alternative route using an endoscopic-assisted interhemispheric parieto-occipital transtentorial approach to a pineal region tumor in a patient with a steep straight sinus and tentorium. The approach provided a shorter route and more direct trajectory to the tumor at the tentorial incisura, and avoided direct fixed retraction on the occipital lobe when performed using the lateral position, thereby minimizing visual complications. This video atlas demonstrates the operative technique and surgical nuances, including the application of endoscopic-assisted microsurgical resection and operative pearls for preservation of the deep cerebral veins. In summary, the parieto-occipital transtentorial approach with endoscopic assistance is an important approach in the armamentarium for surgical management of pineal region tumors.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Ph4veG14aTk.

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James K. Liu

The surgical management of intramedullary spinal cord ependymomas remains a formidable challenge amongst neurosurgeons because of the potential risk of surgical morbidity. From on an oncological perspective, complete resection—if technically feasible—should be the goal of surgery, since this can result in excellent local control and progression-free survival. Advances in microsurgical techniques, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and the use of lasers have contributed to our ability to achieve gross-total resection. This is also largely dependent on the presence of an identifiable surgical plane of dissection between the tumor and spinal cord, which appears to have a positive prognosis with overall neurological improvement. In this operative video manuscript, the author demonstrates an illustrative step-by-step technique for microsurgical resection of a thoracic intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma (T-3 to T-5) associated with an extensive cervicothoracic syrinx. The application of a handheld non-contact CO2 laser for performing the midline myelotomy is also highlighted. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical approach, intradural tumor removal, and closure, are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/itE2tuBFmgw.

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James K. Liu

Intraventricular meningiomas are rare tumors, accounting for approximately 0.5 to 3% of all intracranial meningiomas. The majority arise in the atrium of the lateral ventricle. The surgical management of these tumors remains a considerable challenge because of their deep location and proximity to critical structures. Complete resection, if safely possible, should be the goal of surgery since this results in the best rates of local control. Although various approaches exist to access the lateral ventricular system, selection of the optimal approach should be individualized to the patient based upon the location of the tumor within the ventricle, the tumor size, the origin of the vascular supply to the tumor, and the relationship to neighboring neurovascular structures at risk. In this operative video manuscript, the author demonstrates an illustrative step-by-step technique for microsurgical resection of a giant intraventricular meningioma of the left atrium via a transcortical parieto-occipital approach. The patient illustrated in this video presented with a large recurrent meningioma (> 5 cm) approximately 10 years after the initial resection. The tumor had grown around a pre-existing shunt catheter and resulted in loculated hydrocephalus. A complete resection and shunt revision were both performed at the same sitting. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical approach, intradural tumor removal, closure, and management of hydrocephalus are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/vpdmZ1ccWSM.

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James K. Liu and William T. Couldwell

Neurenteric cysts are rare benign lesions of the central nervous system that are lined by endodermal cell–derived epithelium. Although they occur mostly in the spine, they can occur intracranially, most often in the posterior fossa. Neurenteric cysts that are located in the anterior cervicomedullary junction are even rarer and often require a skull base approach for adequate resection. The authors describe two cases of neurenteric cysts arising from the cervicomedullary junction that were resected via a far-lateral transcondylar approach. They discuss the surgical approach and operative nuances involved in removing these lesions, and review the clinical presentation of neurenteric cysts in this region as well as the neuroimaging characteristics, histopathological findings, and surgical management. Intraoperative videos are presented.

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James K. Liu and Michael A. Cohen

Falcotentorial meningiomas are rare tumors of the pineal region that arise from the dural folds where the falx and tentorium meet and are often intimately related to the vein of Galen and straight sinus. These lesions often present with signs and symptoms related to hydrocephalus and brainstem compression. Surgical resection of falcotentorial meningiomas remains the definitive treatment, with a variety of surgical approaches used to resect these lesions. The choice of approach depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor relative to the vein of Galen complex. Falcotentorial meningiomas can be technically challenging to remove with significant risk of morbidity because of the close proximity to and occasional invasion of the vein of Galen and straight sinus. In this operative video, the authors demonstrate an illustrative step-by-step technique for endoscopic-assisted microsurgical resection of a falcotentorial meningioma using the posterior interhemispheric retrocallosal transfalcine approach for a superiorly positioned falcotentorial meningioma. The surgical nuances are discussed, including the surgical anatomy, gravity-assisted interhemispheric approach in the lateral position, retrocallosal dissection, transfalcine exposure, tumor removal, and preservation of the vein of Galen complex. In summary, the posterior interhemispheric retrocallosal transfalcine approach is a useful surgical strategy for select superiorly positioned falcotentorial meningiomas.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/d8mdunsRacs.

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Smruti K. Patel and James K. Liu

recommendation, which primarily involves the adult population, is that surgical excision of the cyst should be considered first-line treatment in symptomatic patients. 13 In addition, it is recommended that the surgical approach used should provide an adequate exposure of the cyst wall and surrounding structures to ideally achieve a gross-total resection, allowing for a more favorable outcome and avoidance of recurrence. The surgical approach chosen is based on the accessibility and location of the cyst ( Table 1 ). During our surgical decision-making process for the present

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James K. Liu, Ilesha A. Sevak, Peter W. Carmel and Jean Anderson Eloy

surgical approach selection, it is important to recognize the limits of such systems, as it is possible for craniopharyngiomas to extend into multiple regions, which increases the surgical complexity. Accordingly, a combined approach using more than one corridor may be necessary for extensive craniopharyngiomas involving multiple anatomical compartments that are not amenable to one isolated approach. Therefore, a personalized, tailored approach to the individual tumor based on multiple factors is crucial in determining the treatment strategy. In general, when selecting