Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: L. Dade Lunsford x
  • By Author: Lee, John Y. K. x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

John Y. K. Lee, Ajay Niranjan, James McInerney, Douglas Kondziolka, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object. To evaluate long-term outcomes of patients who have undergone stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus meningiomas, the authors retrospectively reviewed their 14-year experience with these cases.

Methods. One hundred seventy-six patients harbored meningiomas centered within the cavernous sinus. Seventeen patients were lost to follow-up review, leaving 159 analyzable patients, in whom 164 procedures were performed. Seventy-six patients (48%) underwent adjuvant radiosurgery after one or more attempts at surgical resection. Eighty-three patients (52%) underwent primary radiosurgery. Two patients (1%) had previously received fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Four patients (2%) harbored histologically verified atypical or malignant meningiomas. Conformal multiple isocenter gamma knife surgery was performed. The median dose applied to the tumor margin was 13 Gy.

Neurological status improved in 46 patients (29%), remained stable in 99 (62%), and eventually worsened in 14 (9%). Adverse effects of radiation occurred after 11 procedures (6.7%). Tumor volumes decreased in 54 patients (34%), remained stable in 96 (60%), and increased in nine (6%). The actuarial tumor control rate for patients with typical meningiomas was 93.1 ± 3.3% at both 5 and 10 years. For the 83 patients who underwent radiosurgery as their sole treatment, the actuarial tumor control rate at 5 years was 96.9 ± 3%.

Conclusions. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided safe and effective management of cavernous sinus meningiomas. We believe it is the preferred management strategy for tumors of suitable volume (average tumor diameter ≤ 3 cm or volume ≤ 15 cm3).

Restricted access

Douglas Kondziolka, Joseph G. Ong, John Y. K. Lee, Robert Y. Moore, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results following Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GKT) for medically refractory essential tremor in a series of patients in whom open surgical techniques were not desirable.

Methods

Thirty-one patients underwent GKT for disabling essential tremor after medical therapy had failed. Their mean age was 77 years. Most patients were elderly or had concomitant medical illnesses. A single 4-mm isocenter was used to target a maximum dose of 130 or 140 Gy to the nucleus ventralis intermedius. Items from the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin clinical tremor rating scale were used to grade tremor and handwriting before and after radiosurgery.

Results

The median follow-up was 36 months. In the group of 26 evaluable patients, the mean tremor score (± standard deviation) was 3.7 ± 0.1 preoperatively and 1.7 ± 0.3 after radiosurgery (p < 0.000015). The mean handwriting score was 2.8 ± 0.2 before GKT and 1.7 ± 0.2 afterward (p < 0.0002). After radiosurgery, 18 patients (69%) showed improvement in both action tremor and writing scores, 6 (23%) only in action tremor scores, and 3 (12%) in neither tremor nor writing. Permanent mild right hemiparesis and speech impairment developed in 1 patient 6 months after radiosurgery. Another patient had transient mild right hemiparesis and dysphagia.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife thalamotomy is a safe and effective therapy for medically refractory essential tremor. Its use is especially valuable for patients ineligible for radiofrequency thalamotomy or deep brain stimulation. Patients must be counseled on potential complications, including the low probability of a delayed neurological deficit.

Full access

Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, Gene H. Barnett, David Mathieu, Veronica Chiang, James B. Yu, Judith Hess, Heyoung L. McBride, Norissa Honea, Peter Nakaji, John Y. K. Lee, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Wendi A. Evanoff, Michelle Alonso-Basanta and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

Posterior fossa meningiomas represent a common yet challenging clinical entity. They are often associated with neurovascular structures and adjacent to the brainstem. Resection can be undertaken for posterior fossa meningiomas, but residual or recurrent tumor is frequent. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat meningiomas, and this study evaluates the outcome of this approach for those located in the posterior fossa.

METHODS

At 7 medical centers participating in the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 675 patients undergoing SRS for a posterior fossa meningioma were identified, and clinical and radiological data were obtained for these cases. Females outnumbered males at a ratio of 3.8 to 1, and the median patient age was 57.6 years (range 12–89 years). Prior resection was performed in 43.3% of the patient sample. The mean tumor volume was 6.5 cm3, and a median margin dose of 13.6 Gy (range 8–40 Gy) was delivered to the tumor.

RESULTS

At a mean follow-up of 60.1 months, tumor control was achieved in 91.2% of cases. Actuarial tumor control was 95%, 92%, and 81% at 3, 5, and 10 years after radiosurgery. Factors predictive of tumor progression included age greater than 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% CI 1.30–4.29, p = 0.005), prior history of radiotherapy (HR 5.19, 95% CI 1.69–15.94, p = 0.004), and increasing tumor volume (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.08, p = 0.005). Clinical stability or improvement was achieved in 92.3% of patients. Increasing tumor volume (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10, p = 0.009) and clival, petrous, or cerebellopontine angle location as compared with petroclival, tentorial, and foramen magnum location (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.05–3.65, p = 0.036) were predictive of neurological decline after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, resection, and radiation therapy were performed in 1.6%, 3.6%, and 1.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery affords a high rate of tumor control and neurological preservation for patients with posterior fossa meningiomas. Those with a smaller tumor volume and no prior radiation therapy were more likely to have a favorable response after radiosurgery. Rarely, additional procedures may be required for hydrocephalus or tumor progression.

Restricted access

Hideyuki Kano, Antonio Meola, Huai-che Yang, Wan-Yuo Guo, Roberto Martínez-Alvarez, Nuria Martínez-Moreno, Dusan Urgosik, Roman Liscak, Or Cohen-Inbar, Jason Sheehan, John Y. K. Lee, Mahmoud Abbassy, Gene H. Barnett, David Mathieu, Douglas Kondziolka and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECTIVE

For some jugular foramen schwannomas (JFSs), complete resection is possible but may be associated with significant morbidity. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a minimally invasive alternative or adjunct to microsurgery for JFSs. The authors reviewed clinical and imaging outcomes of SRS for patients with these tumors.

METHODS

Nine participating centers of the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation identified 92 patients who underwent SRS between 1990 and 2013. Forty-one patients had prior subtotal microsurgical resection. The median interval between previous surgery and SRS was 15 months (range 0.5–144 months). Eighty-four patients had preexisting cranial nerve (CN) symptoms and signs. The median tumor volume was 4.1 cm3 (range 0.8–22.6 cm3), and the median margin dose was 12.5 Gy (range 10–18 Gy). Patients with neurofibromatosis were excluded from this study.

RESULTS

The median follow-up was 51 months (range 6–266 months). Tumors regressed in 47 patients, remained stable in 33, and progressed in 12. The progression-free survival (PFS) was 93% at 3 years, 87% at 5 years, and 82% at 10 years. In the entire series, only a dumbbell shape (extension extracranially via the jugular foramen) was significantly associated with worse PFS. In the group of patients without prior microsurgery (n = 51), factors associated with better PFS included tumor volume < 6 cm3 (p = 0.037) and non–dumbbell-shaped tumors (p = 0.015). Preexisting cranial neuropathies improved in 27 patients, remained stable in 51, and worsened in 14. The CN function improved after SRS in 12% of patients at 1 year, 24% at 2 years, 27% at 3 years, and 32% at 5 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in 7 patients at a median of 7 months after SRS (range 5–38 months). Six patients underwent repeat SRS at a median of 64 months (range 44–134 months). Four patients underwent resection at a median of 14 months after SRS (range 8–30 months).

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery proved to be a safe and effective primary or adjuvant management approach for JFSs. Long-term tumor control rates and stability or improvement in CN function were confirmed.

Restricted access

Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, David Mathieu, Byron Young, Penny K. Sneed, Veronica L. Chiang, John Y. K. Lee, Hideyuki Kano, Kyung-Jae Park, Ajay Niranjan, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H. Barnett, Stephen Rush, John G. Golfinos and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Pituitary adenomas are fairly common intracranial neoplasms, and nonfunctioning ones constitute a large subgroup of these adenomas. Complete resection is often difficult and may pose undue risk to neurological and endocrine function. Stereotactic radiosurgery has come to play an important role in the management of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. This study examines the outcomes after radiosurgery in a large, multicenter patient population.

Methods

Under the auspices of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 9 Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) centers retrospectively combined their outcome data obtained in 512 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Prior resection was performed in 479 patients (93.6%) and prior fractionated external-beam radiotherapy was performed in 34 patients (6.6%). The median age at the time of radiosurgery was 53 years. Fifty-eight percent of patients had some degree of hypopituitarism prior to radiosurgery. Patients received a median dose of 16 Gy to the tumor margin. The median follow-up was 36 months (range 1–223 months).

Results

Overall tumor control was achieved in 93.4% of patients at last follow-up; actuarial tumor control was 98%, 95%, 91%, and 85% at 3, 5, 8, and 10 years postradiosurgery, respectively. Smaller adenoma volume (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02–1.13], p = 0.006) and absence of suprasellar extension (OR 2.10 [95% CI 0.96–4.61], p = 0.064) were associated with progression-free tumor survival. New or worsened hypopituitarism after radiosurgery was noted in 21% of patients, with thyroid and cortisol deficiencies reported as the most common postradiosurgery endocrinopathies. History of prior radiation therapy and greater tumor margin doses were predictive of new or worsening endocrinopathy after GKS. New or progressive cranial nerve deficits were noted in 9% of patients; 6.6% had worsening or new onset optic nerve dysfunction. In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, increasing volume, history of prior radiation therapy, and history of prior pituitary axis deficiency were predictive of new or worsening cranial nerve dysfunction. No patient died as a result of tumor progression. Favorable outcomes of tumor control and neurological preservation were reflected in a 4-point radiosurgical pituitary score.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is an effective and well-tolerated management strategy for the vast majority of patients with recurrent or residual nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Delayed hypopituitarism is the most common complication after radiosurgery. Neurological and cranial nerve function were preserved in more than 90% of patients after radiosurgery. The radiosurgical pituitary score may predict outcomes for future patients who undergo GKS for a nonfunctioning adenoma.

Full access

Or Cohen-Inbar, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, Gregory Bowden, Paul Huang, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S. Grills, David Mathieu, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, John Y. K. Lee, Gene H. Barnett, Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) represent the majority of infratentorial AVMs and frequently have a hemorrhagic presentation. In this multicenter study, the authors review outcomes of cerebellar AVMs after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

METHODS

Eight medical centers contributed data from 162 patients with cerebellar AVMs managed with SRS. Of these patients, 65% presented with hemorrhage. The median maximal nidus diameter was 2 cm. Favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration and no posttreatment hemorrhage or permanent radiation-induced complications (RICs). Patients were followed clinically and radiographically, with a median follow-up of 60 months (range 7–325 months).

RESULTS

The overall actuarial rates of obliteration at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years were 38.3%, 74.2%, 81.4%, and 86.1%, respectively, after single-session SRS. Obliteration and a favorable outcome were more likely to be achieved in patients treated with a margin dose greater than 18 Gy (p < 0.001 for both), demonstrating significantly better rates (83.3% and 79%, respectively). The rate of latency preobliteration hemorrhage was 0.85%/year. Symptomatic post-SRS RICs developed in 4.5% of patients (n = 7). Predictors of a favorable outcome were a smaller nidus (p = 0.0001), no pre-SRS embolization (p = 0.003), no prior hemorrhage (p = 0.0001), a higher margin dose (p = 0.0001), and a higher maximal dose (p = 0.009). The Spetzler-Martin grade was not found to be predictive of outcome. The Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale score (p = 0.0001) and the Radiosurgery-Based AVM Scale score (p = 0.0001) were predictive of a favorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS results in successful obliteration and a favorable outcome in the majority of patients with cerebellar AVMs. Most patients will require a nidus dose of higher than 18 Gy to achieve these goals. Radiosurgical and not microsurgical scales were predictive of clinical outcome after SRS.

Restricted access

Adomas Bunevicius, Hideyuki Kano, Cheng-Chia Lee, Michal Krsek, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Amr El-Shehaby, Khaled Abdel Karim, Nuria Martinez-Moreno, David Mathieu, John Y. K. Lee, Inga Grills, Douglas Kondziolka, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Wael A. Reda, Roman Liscak, Yan-Hua Su, L. Dade Lunsford, Mary Lee Vance and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The optimal time to perform stereotactic radiosurgery after incomplete resection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–producing pituitary adenoma in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) remains unclear. In patients with persistent CD after resection of ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, the authors evaluated the association of the interval between resection and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) with outcomes.

METHODS

Pooled data from 10 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation were used in this study.

RESULTS

Data from 255 patients with a mean follow-up of 65.59 ± 49.01 months (mean ± SD) were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients (30%) underwent GKRS within 3 months; 46 (18%) from 4 to 6 months; 34 (13%) from 7 to 12 months; and 98 (38%) at > 12 months after the resection. Actuarial endocrine remission rates were higher in patients who underwent GKRS ≤ 3 months than when treatment was > 3 months after the resection (78% and 65%, respectively; p = 0.017). Endocrine remission rates were lower in patients who underwent GKRS at > 12 months versus ≤ 12 months after the resection (57% vs 76%, respectively; p = 0.006). In multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for clinical and treatment characteristics, early GKRS was associated with increased probability of endocrine remission (hazard ratio [HR] 1.518, 95% CI 1.039–2.218; p = 0.031), whereas late GKRS (HR 0.641, 95% CI 0.448–0.919; p = 0.015) was associated with reduced probability of endocrine remission. The incidence of some degree of new pituitary deficiency (p = 0.922), new visual deficits (p = 0.740), and other cranial nerve deficits (p = 0.610) was not significantly related to time from resection to GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Early GKRS is associated with an improved endocrine remission rate, whereas later GKRS is associated with a lower rate of endocrine remission after pituitary adenoma resection. Early GKRS should be considered for patients with CD after incomplete pituitary adenoma resection.

Full access

Mohana Rao Patibandla, Dale Ding, Hideyuki Kano, Zhiyuan Xu, John Y. K. Lee, David Mathieu, Jamie Whitesell, John T. Pierce, Paul P. Huang, Douglas Kondziolka, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S. Grills, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Due to the complexity of Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grade IV–V arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the management of these lesions remains controversial. The aims of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the outcomes after single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for SM Grade IV–V AVMs and determine predictive factors.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively pooled data from 233 patients (mean age 33 years) with SM Grade IV (94.4%) or V AVMs (5.6%) treated with single-session SRS at 8 participating centers in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Pre-SRS embolization was performed in 71 AVMs (30.5%). The mean nidus volume, SRS margin dose, and follow-up duration were 9.7 cm3, 17.3 Gy, and 84.5 months, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with post-SRS outcomes.

RESULTS

At a mean follow-up interval of 84.5 months, favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-SRS hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RIC) and was achieved in 26.2% of patients. The actuarial obliteration rates at 3, 7, 10, and 12 years were 15%, 34%, 37%, and 42%, respectively. The annual post-SRS hemorrhage rate was 3.0%. Symptomatic and permanent RIC occurred in 10.7% and 4% of the patients, respectively. Only larger AVM diameter (p = 0.04) was found to be an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of favorable outcome was significantly lower for unruptured SM Grade IV–V AVMs compared with ruptured ones (p = 0.042). Prior embolization was a negative independent predictor of AVM obliteration (p = 0.024) and radiologically evident RIC (p = 0.05) in the respective multivariate analyses.

CONCLUSIONS

In this multi-institutional study, single-session SRS had limited efficacy in the management of SM Grade IV–V AVMs. Favorable outcome was only achieved in a minority of unruptured SM Grade IV–V AVMs, which supports less frequent utilization of SRS for the management of these lesions. A volume-staged SRS approach for large AVMs represents an alternative approach for high-grade AVMs, but it requires further investigation.

Full access

Dale Ding, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, John Y. K. Lee, David Mathieu, John Pierce, Paul P. Huang, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S. Grills, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Because of the angioarchitectural diversity of Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grade III arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the management of these lesions is incompletely defined. The aims of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for SM Grade III AVMs and to determine the factors predicting these outcomes.

METHODS

The authors analyzed and pooled data from patients with SM Grade III AVMs treated with SRS at 8 institutions participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients with these AVMs and a minimum follow-up length of 12 months were included in the study cohort. An optimal outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-SRS hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RICs). Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

RESULTS

The SM Grade III AVM cohort comprised 891 patients with a mean age of 34 years at the time of SRS. The mean nidus volume, radiosurgical margin dose, and follow-up length were 4.5 cm3, 20 Gy, and 89 months, respectively. The actuarial obliteration rates at 5 and 10 years were 63% and 78%, respectively. The annual postradiosurgery hemorrhage rate was 1.2%. Symptomatic and permanent RICs were observed in 11% and 4% of the patients, respectively. Optimal outcome was achieved in 56% of the patients and was significantly more frequent in cases of unruptured AVMs (OR 2.3, p < 0.001). The lack of a previous hemorrhage (p = 0.037), absence of previous AVM embolization (p = 0.002), smaller nidus volume (p = 0.014), absence of AVM-associated arterial aneurysms (p = 0.023), and higher margin dose (p < 0.001) were statistically significant independent predictors of optimal outcome in a multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery provided better outcomes for patients with small, unruptured SM Grade III AVMs than for large or ruptured SM Grade III nidi. A prospective trial or registry that facilitates a comparison of SRS with conservative AVM management might further clarify the authors' observations for these often high-risk AVMs.

Full access

Or Cohen-Inbar, Robert M. Starke, Gabriella Paisan, Hideyuki Kano, Paul P. Huang, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S. Grills, David Mathieu, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, John Y. K. Lee, Gene H. Barnett, Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The goal of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is complete nidus obliteration, thereby eliminating the risk of future hemorrhage. This outcome can be observed within the first 18 months, although documentation of AVM obliteration can extend to as much as 5 years after SRS is performed. A shorter time to obliteration may impact the frequency and effect of post-SRS complications and latency hemorrhage. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine predictors of early obliteration (18 months or less) following SRS for cerebral AVM.

METHODS

Eight centers participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation (IGKRF) obtained institutional review board approval to supply de-identified patient data. From a cohort of 2231 patients, a total of 1398 patients had confirmed AVM obliteration. Patients were sorted into early responders (198 patients), defined as those with confirmed nidus obliteration at or prior to 18 months after SRS, and late responders (1200 patients), defined as those with confirmed nidus obliteration more than 18 months after SRS. The median clinical follow-up time was 63.7 months (range 7–324.7 months).

RESULTS

Outcome parameters including latency interval hemorrhage, mortality, and favorable outcome were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Radiologically demonstrated radiation-induced changes were noted more often in the late responder group (376 patients [31.3%] vs 39 patients [19.7%] for early responders, p = 0.005). Multivariate independent predictors of early obliteration included a margin dose > 24 Gy (p = 0.031), prior surgery (p = 0.002), no prior radiotherapy (p = 0.025), smaller AVM nidus (p = 0.002), deep venous drainage (p = 0.039), and nidus location (p < 0.0001). Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and frontal lobe nidus locations favored early obliteration (p = 0.009). The Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale (VRAS) score was significantly different between the 2 responder groups (p = 0.039). The VRAS score was also shown to be predictive of early obliteration on univariate analysis (p = 0.009). For early obliteration, such prognostic ability was not shown for other SRS- and AVM-related grading systems.

CONCLUSIONS

Early obliteration (≤ 18 months post-SRS) was more common in patients whose AVMs were smaller, located in the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, or cerebellum, had deep venous drainage, and had received a margin dose > 24 Gy.