Ching-Jen Chen, Srinivas Chivukula, Dale Ding, Robert M. Starke, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chun-Po Yen, Zhiyuan Xu and Jason P. Sheehan
Seizures are a common presentation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The authors evaluated the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the management of seizures associated with AVMs and identified factors influencing seizure outcomes following SRS for AVMs.
A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed. Studies selected for review were published in English, included at least 5 patients with both cerebral AVMs and presenting seizures treated with SRS, and provided post-SRS outcome data regarding obliteration of AVMs and/or seizures. Demographic, radiosurgical, radiological, and seizure outcome data were extracted and analyzed. All seizure outcomes were categorized as follows: 1) seizure free, 2) seizure improvement, 3) seizure unchanged, and 4) seizure worsened. Systematic statistical analysis was conducted to assess the effect of post-SRS AVM obliteration on seizure outcome.
Nineteen case series with a total of 3971 AVM patients were included for analysis. Of these, 28% of patients presented with seizures, and data for 997 patients with available seizure outcome data who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Of these, 437 (43.8%) patients achieved seizure-free status after SRS, and 530 (68.7%) of 771 patients with available data achieved seizure control (seizure freedom or seizure improvement) following SRS. Factors associated with improved seizure outcomes following SRS for AVMs were analyzed in 9 studies. Seizure-free status was achieved in 82% and 41.0% of patients with complete and incomplete AVM obliteration, respectively. Complete AVM obliteration offered superior seizure-free rates compared with incomplete AVM obliteration (OR 6.13; 95% CI 2.16–17.44; p = 0.0007).
Stereotactic radiosurgery offers favorable seizure outcomes for AVM patients presenting with seizures. Improved seizure control is significantly more likely with complete AVM obliteration.
Shayan Moosa, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Cheng-Chia Lee, Srinivas Chivukula, Robert M. Starke, Chun-Po Yen, Zhiyuan Xu and Jason P. Sheehan
The aim in this paper was to compare the outcomes of dose-staged and volume-staged stereotactic radio-surgery (SRS) in the treatment of large (> 10 cm3) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed. Studies written in the English language with at least 5 patients harboring large (> 10 cm3) AVMs treated with dose- or volume-staged SRS that reported post-treatment outcomes data were selected for review. Demographic information, radiosurgical treatment parameters, and post-SRS outcomes and complications were analyzed for each of these studies.
The mean complete obliteration rates for the dose- and volume-staged groups were 22.8% and 47.5%, respectively. Complete obliteration was demonstrated in 30 of 161 (18.6%) and 59 of 120 (49.2%) patients in the dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. The mean rates of symptomatic radiation-induced changes were 13.5% and 13.6% in dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. The mean rates of cumulative post-SRS latency period hemorrhage were 12.3% and 17.8% in the dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. The mean rates of post-SRS mortality were 3.2% and 4.6% in dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively.
Volume-staged SRS affords higher obliteration rates and similar complication rates compared with dose-staged SRS. Thus, volume-staged SRS may be a superior approach for large AVMs that are not amenable to single-session SRS. Staged radiosurgery should be considered as an efficacious component of multimodality AVM management.
Ching-Jen Chen, Cheng-Chia Lee, Dale Ding, Robert M. Starke, Srinivas Chivukula, Chun-Po Yen, Shayan Moosa, Zhiyuan Xu, David Hung-Chi Pan and Jason P. Sheehan
The goal of this study was to evaluate the obliteration rate of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and to compare obliteration rates between cavernous sinus (CS) and noncavernous sinus (NCS) DAVFs, and between DAVFs with and without cortical venous drainage (CVD).
A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed. The CS DAVFs and the NCS DAVFs were categorized using the Barrow and Borden classification systems, respectively. The DAVFs were also categorized by location and by the presence of CVD. Statistical analyses of pooled data were conducted to assess complete obliteration rates in CS and NCS DAVFs, and in DAVFs with and without CVD.
Nineteen studies were included, comprising 729 patients harboring 743 DAVFs treated with SRS. The mean obliteration rate was 63% (95% CI 52.4%–73.6%). Complete obliteration for CS and NCS DAVFs was achieved in 73% and 58% of patients, respectively. No significant difference in obliteration rates between CS and NCS DAVFs was found (OR 1.72, 95% CI 0.66–4.46; p = 0.27). Complete obliteration in DAVFs with and without CVD was observed in 56% and 75% of patients, respectively. A significantly higher obliteration rate was observed in DAVFs without CVD compared with DAVFs with CVD (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.07–5.28; p = 0.03).
Treatment with SRS offers favorable rates of DAVF obliteration with low complication rates. Patients harboring DAVFs that are refractory or not amenable to endovascular or surgical therapy may be safely and effectively treated using SRS.
Dylan Russell, Travis Peck, Dale Ding, Ching-Jen Chen, Davis G. Taylor, Robert M. Starke, Cheng-Chia Lee and Jason P. Sheehan
Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) prior to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been reported to negatively affect obliteration rates. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes of AVMs treated with embolization plus SRS (E+SRS group) and those of AVMs treated with SRS alone (SRS group).
A literature review was performed using PubMed to identify studies with 10 or more AVM patients and obliteration data for both E+SRS and SRS groups. A meta-analysis was performed to compare obliteration rates between the E+SRS and SRS groups.
Twelve articles comprising 1716 patients were eligible for analysis. Among the patients with radiological follow-up data, complete obliteration was achieved in 48.4% of patients (330/681) in the E+SRS group compared with 62.7% of patients (613/978) in the SRS group. A meta-analysis of the pooled data revealed that the obliteration rate was significantly lower in the E+SRS group (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41–0.64, p < 0.00001). Symptomatic adverse radiation effects were observed in 6.6% (27/412 patients) and 11.1% (48/433 patients) of the E+SRS and SRS groups, respectively. The annual post-SRS hemorrhage rate was 2.0%–6.5% and 0%–2.0% for the E+SRS and SRS groups, respectively. The rates of permanent morbidity were 0%–6.7% and 0%–13.5% for the E+SRS and SRS groups, respectively.
Arteriovenous malformation treatment with combined embolization and SRS is associated with lower obliteration rates than those with SRS treatment alone. However, this comparison does not fully account for differences in the initial AVM characteristics in the E+SRS group as compared with those in the SRS group. Further studies are warranted to address these limitations.