Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Corrado Lucantoni, Francesco Signorelli and Liverana Lauretti
Eduardo Fernandez, Alessandro Di Rienzo, Enrico Marchese, Luca Massimi, Liverana Lauretti and Roberto Pallini
✓ An 18-year-old man presented with a spontaneously occurring radial nerve palsy that spared the triceps muscle. At surgery, the portion of the radial nerve located at the midarm level had an hourglass-like appearance. Under magnification, an external—internal neurolysis of the narrowed portion of the hourglass-shaped portion revealed nerve torsion. Straightening of the twisted nerve and fixation accomplished using epiperineurium—fascia stitches to avoid a new torsion resulted in complete functional recovery of the radial nerve.
Liverana Lauretti, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Massimo Fantoni, Tiziana D'Inzeo, Eduardo Fernandez, Roberto Pallini and Giancarlo Scoppettuolo
The authors report on the first case of the intraventricular administration of tigecycline described in the Western literature. A 22-year-old man developed cerebrospinal fluid infection from an extremely drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii as a complication of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for the removal of a giant pituitary adenoma. The patient was safely and successfully treated with the prolonged intraventricular administration of tigecycline. Here, the authors provide the schedule details that can be invaluable in treating meningitis from extremely drug-resistant bacterial strains. Intraventricular tigecycline can be a valuable tool against multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections.
Roberto Pallini, Eduardo Fernandez, Liverana Lauretti, Francesco Draicchio, Vito E. Pettorossi, Carlo Gangitano, Aurora Del Fà, Corrado Olivieri-Sangiacomo and Alessandro Sbriccoli
✓ In adult guinea pigs, the oculomotor nerve was sectioned proximally (at the tentorial edge) or more distally (at the orbital fissure) and immediately repaired by reapproximation. During a 24-week postoperative period, extrinsic eye motility was assessed by analyzing the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. The regenerated oculomotor nerve was studied morphometrically on semi-thin histological sections at 16 and 24 weeks postinjury. The selectivity of muscle reinnervation was investigated by injection of both single (horseradish peroxidase) and double (fluorescent dyes) retrograde axonal tracers into the eye muscles. Following proximal repair of the oculomotor nerve, the degree of recovery of extraocular motility varied among different animals and remained stable over long-term observations. In animals with poor recovery, aberrant eye movements were always found, and the somatotopic map of the reinnervated eye muscles was greatly altered. Distortions of the central representation were also seen in those animals in which a good level of functional recovery was seen. However, in animals with good recovery, a topographic bias was re-established by about 65% of the original neuronal population, as opposed to 26% in the animals with poor recovery. Neurons located contralateral to the axotomized nucleus sprouted intra-axially and projected their axons to denervated eye muscles. The number and diameter of the regenerated axons, the number and soma diameter of the axotomized neurons, and the ratio of distal axonal branches to proximal supporting neurons were all related to the degree of functional recovery.
Following repair of the oculomotor nerve at the orbital fissure, extraocular motility had recovered in all of the animals at 16 weeks without aberrant phenomena. Functional regeneration of the distally transected oculomotor nerve is thought to be the result of selective muscle reinnervation.
Roberto Pallini, Angelo Tancredi, Patrizia Casalbore, Delio Mercanti, Luigi M. Larocca, Alessandro Consales, Liverana Lauretti and Eduardo Fernandez
✓ The authors report the case of a young man suffering from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) who harbored bilateral acoustic schwannomas and a parasellar meningioma. Neuroimaging studies performed during a 4-year follow-up period showed that the bilateral schwannomas had grown very little and at similar rates. However, after the meningioma had infiltrated the tentorium and approached the ipsilateral schwannoma at the incisura, both Schwann cell tumors started to grow rapidly, particularly the one adjacent to the meningioma, of which the percentage of annual growth rate increased by approximately a factor of 102. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging showed that this tumor also changed its features. During surgery, the acoustic schwannoma was firmly adherent to both meningioma and tentorium. Histological examination revealed meningotheliomatous cells in the schwannoma adjacent to the meningioma. Antiphosphotyrosine immunoblotting of PC12 cells was compatible with the presence of an epidermal growth factor (EGF)—like molecule in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patient. This factor was not detected in the CSF of five other NF2 patients, two of whom bore associated bilateral acoustic schwannomas and meningioma in remote locations. It is hypothesized that the meningotheliomatous cells infiltrating the schwannoma triggered an autocrine/paracrine growth—stimulatory mechanism that involved an EGF-like factor.
Pyrogenic cytokine interleukin-6 expression by a chordoid meningioma in an adult with a systemic inflammatory syndrome
Case report and review of the literature
Luca Denaro, Federico Di Rocco, Marco Gessi, Libero Lauriola, Liverana Lauretti, Roberto Pallini, Eduardo Fernandez and Giulio Maira
✓ Chordoid meningioma is a rare meningothelial tumor characterized by chordoma-like histological features with lymphoplasmacellular infiltration. This tumor is often seen in children, but not in adults, with a systemic inflammatory syndrome (iron-resistant microcytic anemia and/or dysgammaglobulinemia) and very rarely with a persistent moderate hyperthermia.
In the present report the authors describe a temporal chordoid meningioma in a 30-year-old woman who presented with fever, headache, and a serological inflammatory syndrome. The clinical symptomatology, chiefly the fever, disappeared immediately after removal of the tumor. To the authors' knowledge, only one similar patient with such clinical presentation and response to surgery has been mentioned in the literature. Interestingly, at immunohistochemical examination, the neoplasm showed focal positivity for the pyrogenic cytokine interleukin-6. The capacity of the tumor to produce this pyrogenic cytokine could explain both the patient's clinical presentation and her response to the surgical management.
Nicola Montano, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Federico Bianchi, Liverana Lauretti, Francesco Doglietto, Eduardo Fernandez, Giulio Maira and Roberto Pallini
Communicating hydrocephalus is an uncommon complication in patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Its pathogenesis remains unclear. The authors evaluated the clinical and radiological factors associated with the onset of communicating hydrocephalus and the impact of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery on the outcome of these patients.
One hundred twenty-four patients harboring GBM, who had undergone craniotomy for tumor resection and adjuvant radiochemotherapy, were retrospectively assessed. Seven of them developed communicating hydrocephalus and were treated with VP shunt surgery. Clinical and radiological estimates included Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, previous surgery, overall survival (OS), CSF pressure and components, tumor location, and leptomeningeal dissemination.
All 7 patients who developed communicating hydrocephalus had undergone at least 2 craniotomies for tumor resection before the onset of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0006; Fisher exact test). Six cases showed high levels of CSF proteins. There was a highly significant relationship between ventricular opening at surgery for tumor recurrence and onset of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0002; Fisher exact test). In these patients, VP shunt surgery was followed by a significant improvement of KPS score (p = 0.0180; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The median OS after VP shunt insertion was 5 ± 2.9 months.
Ventricular opening after radiochemotherapy and high CSF protein levels are significant predictors of communicating hydrocephalus in patients with GBM. The VP shunt surgery improves quality of life in these patients.