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  • Author or Editor: Nicholas M. Barbaro x
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Edward F. Chang, Matthew B. Potts, G. Evren Keles, Kathleen R. Lamborn, Susan M. Chang, Nicholas M. Barbaro and Mitchel S. Berger

Object

Seizures play an important role in the clinical presentation and postoperative quality of life of patients who undergo surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The aim of this study was to identify factors that influenced perioperative seizure characteristics and postoperative seizure control.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all cases involving adult patients who underwent initial surgery for LGGs at the University of California, San Francisco between 1997 and 2003.

Results

Three hundred and thirty-two cases were included for analysis; 269 (81%) of the 332 patients presented with ≥ 1 seizures (generalized alone, 33%; complex partial alone, 16%; simple partial alone, 22%; and combination, 29%). Cortical location and oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma subtypes were significantly more likely to be associated with seizures compared with deeper midline locations and astrocytoma, respectively (p = 0.017 and 0.001, respectively; multivariate analysis). Of the 269 patients with seizures, 132 (49%) had pharmacoresistant seizures before surgery. In these patients, seizures were more likely to be simple partial and to involve the temporal lobe, and the period from seizure onset to surgery was likely to have been longer (p = 0.0005, 0.0089, and 0.006, respectively; multivariate analysis). For the cohort of patients that presented with seizures, 12-month outcome after surgery (Engel class) was as follows: seizure free (I), 67%; rare seizures (II), 17%; meaningful seizure improvement (III), 8%; and no improvement or worsening (IV), 9%. Poor seizure control was more common in patients with longer seizure history (p < 0.001) and simple partial seizures (p = 0.004). With respect to treatment-related variables, seizure control was far more likely to be achieved after gross-total resection than after subtotal resection/biopsy alone (odds ratio 16, 95% confidence interval 2.2–124, p = 0.0064). Seizure recurrence after initial postoperative seizure control was associated with tumor progression (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

The majority of patients with LGG present with seizures; in approximately half of these patients, the seizures are pharmacoresistant before surgery. Postoperatively, > 90% of these patients are seizure free or have meaningful improvement. A shorter history of seizures and gross-total resection appear to be associated with a favorable prognosis for seizure control.

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Edward F. Chang, Justin S. Smith, Susan M. Chang, Kathleen R. Lamborn, Michael D. Prados, Nicholas Butowski, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Andrew T. Parsa, Mitchel S. Berger and Michael M. Mcdermott

Object

Hemispheric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have an unpredictable progression and overall survival (OS) profile. As a result, the objective in the present study was to design a preoperative scoring system to prognosticate long-term outcomes in patients with LGGs.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review with long-term follow-up of 281 adults harboring hemispheric LGGs (World Health Organization Grade II lesions). Clinical and radiographic data were collected and analyzed to identify preoperative predictors of OS, progression-free survival (PFS), and extent of resection (EOR). These variables were used to devise a prognostic scoring system.

Results

The 5-year estimated survival probability was 0.86. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that 4 factors were associated with lower OS: presumed eloquent location (hazard ratio [HR] 4.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71–10.42), Karnofsky Performance Scale score ≤ 80 (HR 3.53, 95% CI 1.56–8.00), patient age > 50 years (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.47–3.77), and tumor diameter > 4 cm (HR 3.43, 95% CI 1.43–8.06). A scoring system calculated from the sum of these factors (range 0–4) demonstrated risk stratification across study groups, with the following 5-year cumulative survival estimates: Scores 0–1, OS = 0.97, PFS = 0.76; Score 2, OS = 0.81, PFS = 0.49; and Scores 3–4, OS = 0.56, PFS = 0.18 (p < 0.001 for both OS and PFS, log-rank test). This proposed scoring system demonstrated a high degree of interscorer reliability (kappa = 0.86). Four illustrative cases are described.

Conclusions

The authors propose a simple and reliable scoring system that can be used to preoperatively prognosticate the degree of lesion resectability, PFS, and OS in patients with LGGs. The application of a standardized scoring system for LGGs should improve clinical decision-making and allow physicians to reliably predict patient outcome at the time of the original imaging-based diagnosis.