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  • Author or Editor: Maxwell Boakye x
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Shivanand P. Lad, Chirag G. Patil, Christopher Ho, Michael S. B. Edwards and Maxwell Boakye

Object

Previous investigations of health outcome after spinal surgery for tethered cord syndrome (TCS) have been single-institution studies. The aim of this study was to report inpatient complications and outcomes on a nationwide level.

Methods

The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify patients who underwent spinal surgery for TCS in the US between 1993 and 2002. Patients who had a primary diagnosis of TCS (ICD-9 742.59) and also underwent spinal laminectomies were included in this study. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on variables such as mortality rate, nonfatal complications, LOS, and adverse outcomes in general (defined as death or discharge to an institution rather than home).

Results

The NIS sample included data on 9733 patients with TCS who underwent surgery. The means for mortality rate, complication rate, and LOS, respectively, were 0.0005%, 9.48%, and 5.6 days. Postoperative hemorrhages or hematomas (mean rate 2.3%) were the most common complications reported. Age and complications were the only significant predictors of adverse outcome on multivariate analysis. Patients older than 65 years had a threefold increase in risk of adverse outcome compared with patients 18 to 44 years of age. On average, one postoperative complication led to a 3-day increase in mean LOS and added more than $9000 to hospital charges.

Conclusions

This study provides a national perspective on inpatient complications and outcomes after spinal surgery for TCS in the United States. The authors have demonstrated the impact of age, complications, and medical comorbidities on the outcome of surgery for patients with this common disorder.

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Chirag G. Patil, Shivanand P. Lad, Griffith R. Harsh, Edward R. Laws Jr. and Maxwell Boakye

Object

Information about complications, patient outcomes, and mortality rate after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease has been derived largely from single-institution series. In this study the authors report on inpatient death, morbidity, and outcomes following TSS for Cushing's disease on a national level.

Methods

All patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database who had undergone transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor for Cushing's disease between 1993 and 2002 were included in the study. The number of cases per year, length of stay (LOS), and rates of inpatient complications, death, and adverse outcomes (death or discharge to institution other than home) were abstracted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on outcome measures.

Results

According to the NIS, there were an estimated 3525 cases of TSS for Cushing's disease in the US between 1993 and 2002. During this period, there was a trend toward a small increase in the number of TSSs for Cushing's disease. The in-hospital mortality rate was 0.7%, and the complication rate was 42.1%. Diabetes insipidus (15%), fluid and electrolyte abnormalities (12.5%), and neurological deficits (5.6%) were the most common complications reported. Multivariate analysis showed that complications were more likely in patients with pre-operative comorbidities. Patients older than 64 years were much more likely to have an adverse outcome (odds ratio [OR] 20.8) and a prolonged hospital stay (OR 2.2). Women were less likely than men to have an adverse outcome (OR 0.3). A single postoperative complication increased the mean LOS by 3 days, more than tripled the odds of an adverse outcome, and increased the hospital charges by more than US $7000.

Conclusions

The authors provided a national perspective on trends, inpatient complications, and outcomes after TSS for Cushing's disease in the US. Postoperative complications had a significantly negative effect on LOS, adverse outcome, and resource utilization. Advanced age and multiple preoperative comorbidities were identified as important risk factors, and their effects on patient outcomes were quantified.

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Shivanand P. Lad, Chirag G. Patil, Eleonora Maries Lad and Maxwell Boakye

Object

Pathological vertebral fractures (PVFs) are an increasingly important cause of disability and have many clinical and economic implications. The authors examined trends in epidemiology and surgical management of pathological vertebral fractures in the US between 1993 and 2004.

Methods

The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze data collected from 1993 through 2004 to determine general trends in PVFs. Patients with PVFs were identified using the appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) diagnostic code (ICD-9 733.13). Trends in vertebral augmentation procedures and spinal fusions as well as comparison with incidences of other major pathological fractures, such as hip and upper limb, were also examined.

Results

In 2004, there were more than 55,000 inpatient admissions for PVFs. The majority of patients admitted were women (78%) in the 65 to 84 year–age group (60%). Medicare accounted for greater than 80% of insurance, and nearly 50% of all patients were admitted from the emergency department. The mean duration of hospitalization has continued to decrease, from 8.1 days in 1993 to 5.4 days in 2004. The mortality rate has remained relatively constant at approximately 1.5%. The discharge disposition has continued to change with an increasing number of patients being discharged to other institutions such as nursing homes and rehabilitation facilities. There was a staggering increase in the number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed between 1993 and 2004. The “national bill” for inpatient hospitalizations for PVFs totaled $1.3 billion in 2004.

Conclusions

With the continued aging of the population, PVFs represent an important cause of disability and a significant source of healthcare resource utilization.

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Gordon Li, Chirag Patil, John R. Adler, Shivanand P. Lad, Scott G. Soltys, Iris C. Gibbs, Laurie Tupper and Maxwell Boakye

Object

By targeting the medial branches of the dorsal rami, radiofrequency ablation and facet joint injections can provide temporary amelioration of facet joint–producing (or facetogenic) back pain. The authors used CyberKnife radiosurgery to denervate affected facet joints with the goal of obtaining a less invasive yet more thorough and durable antinociceptive rhizotomy.

Methods

Patients with refractory low-back pain, in whom symptoms are temporarily resolved by facet joint injections, were eligible. The patients were required to exhibit positron emission tomography–positive findings at the affected levels. Radiosurgical rhizotomy, targeting the facet joint, was performed in a single session with a marginal prescription dose of 40 Gy and a maximal dose of 60 Gy.

Results

Seven facet joints in 5 patients with presumptive facetogenic back pain underwent CyberKnife lesioning. The median follow-up was 9.8 months (range 3–16 months). The mean planning target volume was 1.7 cm3 (range 0.9–2.7 cm3). A dose of 40 Gy was prescribed to a mean isodose line of 79% (range 75–80%). Within 1 month of radiosurgery, improvement in pain was observed in 3 of the 5 patients with durable responses at 16, 12, and 6 months, respectively, of follow-up. Two patients, after 12 and 3 months of follow-up, have neither improved nor worsened. No patient has experienced acute or late-onset toxicity.

Conclusions

These preliminary results suggest that CyberKnife radiosurgery could be a safe, effective, and non-invasive alternative to radiofrequency ablation for managing facetogenic back pain. No patient suffered recurrent symptoms after radiosurgery. It is not yet known whether pain relief due to such lesions will be more durable than that produced by alternative procedures. A larger series of patients with long-term follow-up is ongoing.

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Shivanand P. Lad, Justin G. Santarelli, Chirag G. Patil, Gary K. Steinberg and Maxwell Boakye

Object

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare and understudied vascular lesions that cause neurological insult by mass effect, venous obstruction, and vascular steal. These lesions are challenging entities to treat because of their complicated anatomy and physiology. Current management options include open microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery.

Methods

Our study used the National Inpatient Sample database to analyze outcome data for spinal AVMs treated nationwide over an 11-year period from 1995 through 2006. Trends in procedural management, hospital course, and epidemiology of spinal AVMs are investigated.

Results

Annually, an average of 300 patients presented with spinal AVMs requiring hospital treatment. The average length of hospital stay for this treatment has declined from more than 9 days in 1995 to 6 days in 2006. However, the average cost of a hospital stay has increased from < $30,000 to nearly $70,000. Whereas one-half of spinal AVMs were treated operatively in 1995, one-third were managed operatively in 2006.

Conclusions

Spinal AVMs are being increasingly treated by endovascular, radiosurgical, or combined means. A discussion of modern strategies to treat these disorders is presented.

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Paul Kalanithi, Ryan D. Schubert, Shivanand P. Lad, Odette A. Harris and Maxwell Boakye

Object

This study provides the first US national data regarding frequency, cost, and mortality rate of traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH), and identifies demographic factors affecting morbidity and death in patients with traumatic SDH undergoing surgical drainage.

Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted by querying the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer database of nonfederal community hospitals. All cases of traumatic SDH were identified using ICD-9 codes. The study consisted of 2 parts: 1) trends data, which were abstracted from the years 1993–2006, and 2) univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression of demographic variables on inhospital complications and deaths for the years 1993–2002.

Results

Admissions for traumatic SDH increased 154% from 17,328 in 1993 to 43,996 in 2006. Inhospital deaths decreased from 16.4% to 11.6% for traumatic SDH. Average costs increased 67% to $47,315 per admission. For the multivariate regression analysis, between 1993 and 2002, 67,864 patients with traumatic SDH underwent operative treatment. The inhospital mortality rate was 14.9% for traumatic SDH drainage, with an 18% inhospital complication rate. Factors affecting inhospital deaths included presence of coma (OR = 2.45) and more than 2 comorbidities (OR = 1.60). Increased age did not worsen the inhospital mortality rate.

Conclusions

Nationally, frequency and cost of traumatic SDH cases are increasing rapidly.

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Ranjith Babu, Steven Thomas, Matthew A. Hazzard, Allan H. Friedman, John H. Sampson, Cory Adamson, Ali R. Zomorodi, Michael M. Haglund, Chirag G. Patil, Maxwell Boakye and Shivanand P. Lad

Object

On July 1, 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented duty-hour restrictions for resident physicians due to concerns for patient and resident safety. Though duty-hour restrictions have increased resident quality of life, studies have shown mixed results with respect to patient outcomes. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of duty-hour restrictions on morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and charges in patients who underwent brain tumor and cerebrovascular procedures.

Methods

The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to evaluate the effect of duty-hour restrictions on complications, mortality, length of stay, and charges by comparing the pre-reform (2000–2002) and post-reform (2005–2008) periods. Outcomes were compared between nonteaching and teaching hospitals using a difference-in-differences (DID) method.

Results

A total of 90,648 patients were included in the analysis. The overall complication rate was 11.7%, with the rates not significantly differing between the pre– and post–duty hour eras (p = 0.26). Examination of hospital teaching status revealed that complication rates decreased in nonteaching hospitals (12.1% vs 10.4%, p = 0.0004) and remained stable in teaching institutions (11.8% vs 11.9%, p = 0.73) in the post-reform era. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significantly higher complication risk in teaching institutions (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11–1.59], p = 0.0022), with no significant change in nonteaching hospitals (OR 1.11 [95% CI 0.91–1.37], p = 0.31). A DID analysis to compare the magnitude in change between teaching and nonteaching institutions revealed that teaching hospitals had a significantly greater increase in complications during the post-reform era than nonteaching hospitals (p = 0.040). The overall mortality rate was 3.0%, with a significant decrease occurring in the post-reform era in both nonteaching (5.0% vs 3.2%, p < 0.0001) and teaching (3.2% vs 2.3%, p < 0.0001) hospitals. DID analysis to compare the changes in mortality between groups did not reveal a significant difference (p = 0.40). The mean length of stay for all patients was 8.7 days, with hospital stay decreasing from 9.2 days to 8.3 days in the post-reform era (p < 0.0001). The DID analysis revealed a greater length of stay decrease in nonteaching hospitals than teaching institutions, which approached significance (p = 0.055). Patient charges significantly increased in the post-reform era for all patients, increasing from $70,900 to $96,100 (p < 0.0001). The DID analysis did not reveal a significant difference between the changes in charges between teaching and nonteaching hospitals (p = 0.17).

Conclusions

The implementation of duty-hour restrictions correlated with an increased risk of postoperative complications for patients undergoing brain tumor and cerebrovascular neurosurgical procedures. Duty-hour reform may therefore be associated with worse patient outcomes, contrary to its intended purpose. Due to the critical condition of many neurosurgical patients, this patient population is most sensitive and likely to be negatively affected by proposed future increased restrictions.