Mitsunobu Nakamura, Hideaki Imai, Kenjiro Konno, Chisato Kubota, Koji Seki, Sandra Puentes, Ahmad Faried, Hideaki Yokoo, Hidekazu Hata, Yuhei Yoshimoto and Nobuhito Saito
Encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) is a surgical treatment for moyamoya disease that is widely used to provide increased intracranial blood flow via revascularization by arterial anastomosis from the external carotid artery. However, the angiogenic mechanism responsible for the revascularization induced by EMS has not been systematically evaluated. In this study the authors investigated the chronological angiogenic changes associated with EMS to clarify the favorable factors and identify revascularization mechanisms by using an experimental internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) model in the miniature pig.
Fourteen miniature pigs were used, 11 of which underwent ICAO before transcranial surgery for EMS was performed. Animals were allowed to recover for 1 week (4 pigs) or 4 weeks (7 pigs) after EMS. Control group animals were treated in the same way, but without occlusion (3 pigs). Magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, and histological investigation were performed.
One week after EMS, on histological examination of both the ICAO and control groups it was found that the transplanted temporal muscle had adhered to the arachnoid via a granulation zone, which was enriched with immune cells such as macrophages associated with the angiogenic process. Four weeks after EMS, angiography and histological examination of the ICAO group showed patent anastomoses between the external carotid artery and the cortical arteries without any detectable boundary between the temporal muscle and the cerebral cortex. In contrast, histological examination of the control group found scar tissue between the cerebral cortex and temporal muscle.
The initial step for formation of anastomoses resembles the process of wound healing associated with repair processes such as active proliferation of macrophages and angiogenesis within the new connective tissue. Functional revascularization requires a suitable environment (such as tissue containing vascular beds) and stimulus (such as ischemia) to induce vascular expansion.
Hideaki Imai, Kenjiro Konno, Mitsunobu Nakamura, Tatsuya Shimizu, Chisato Kubota, Koji Seki, Fumiaki Honda, Shinichiro Tomizawa, Yukitaka Tanaka, Hidekazu Hata and Nobuhito Saito
The purpose of this set of studies is to design a minimally invasive, reproducible stroke model in the gyrencephalic brain. This paper provides information on both surgical technique and methods of quantification of ischemic damage to both gray and white matter in the miniature pig.
Sixteen male miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups and underwent transcranial surgery involving a frontotemporal approach with orbital rim osteotomy for permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; five animals), permanent internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO; six animals), and a sham operation (five animals). Histological mapping and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were used to delineate the areas of ischemic damage. The volumes of infarction measured directly from MR images were 16.2 ± 1.1, 1.5 ± 0.5, and 0.0 ± 0.0 cm3 (mean ± standard deviation [SD], p < 0.001) in the MCAO, ICAO, and sham-operated groups, respectively. The areas of ischemia identified through histological analysis and MR imaging showed a good correlation (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining with an amyloid precursor protein (APP) antibody was used to evaluate axonal damage and calculate a total APP score for axonal damage of 44.8 ± 2.9 in the MCAO, 13.2 ± 6.6 in the ICAO, and 0.0 ± 0.0 (mean ± SD, p < 0.002) in the sham-operated animals.
This new model of focal cerebral ischemia induces a reproducible amount of ischemic damage in both gray and white matter, and has significant utility for studies of the pathophysiology of ischemia in the gyrencephalic brain and for assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of drugs prior to the initiation of human clinical trials.